Kōrero: Ngā tuhinga me te rangahau

Whārangi 3. Ngā tuhinga ngaio

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Te Kotahitanga o ngā Tamariki o te Kāreti o Te Aute

Ko ētahi tuhinga tōmua i puta mai i ngā hui a te Kotahitanga o ngā Tamariki o te Kāreti o Te Aute (i tīmataria i te tau 1897). Nā te kaiwhakaū o te rōpū nā Āpirana Ngata me ētahi anō o ngā mema i whakairo ngā tuhinga. Nō muri mai ka mōhiotia rātou ko te Rōpū Rangatahi Māori. Ahakoa i pau tōna kaha ki ngā mahi tōrangapū, i ngana tonu ia ki te rangahau me te tuhi i te ahurea me ngā tikanga tuku iho a te Māori. 

Te Rangi Hīroa

He nui ngā takoha atu a Te Rangi Hīroa ki te kaupapa, ā, ko tana tuhinga e pā ana ki a Parihaka tērā. I te tīmatanga o te rautau 1900 ka whakaputaina e ia ngā tuhinga i roto i ngā niupepa o te Whare Taonga o Aotearoa me te Hautaka o te Rōpū Poronīhia. Mai i te tekau tau 1920 ka kuhu ia ki te hōhonutanga o te mātauranga tikanga tangata, ā, ka tāia āna tuhinga e pā ana ki ngā kākahu Māori me te ahurea rawa o ngā Kuki Airani. Nāwai ka tū ia hei kairangahau ki te Whare Taonga Pīhopa i Hawaii i kauneke ai ia mai i te tūranga pia, ki te tūranga ngaio i roto i ngā mahi mātauranga tikanga tangata. Nāwai ka tū ia hei ringa tohu mō te whare taonga. Ko te pukapuka rongonui a Te Rangi Hīroa ko Vikings of the sunrise (i te tau 1938) e pā ana ki ngā kōrero tuku iho, ngā mātauranga momo tangata me te hanganga ā-iwi o ngā iwi o Poronīhia. 

Mākereti Papakura

I te tau 1926 ka uru a Mākereti Papakura ki te tohu paetahi tikanga ā-iwi o te Whare Wānanga o Oxford ki Ingarangi. Heoi i mua tata i tōna whakamātautauranga i te tau 1930, ka haukotia ia e mate. Ko tāna pukapuka, The old-time Maori, i whakaputa murimatetia i te tau 1938, e te komiti mātauranga tikanga tangata o Oxford. Ko tēnei te pukapuka whānui tuatahi i tuhia e te Māori mō ngā mātauranga tikanga tangata. Nō te tau 1986 ka tāia anō te pukapuka, me te kupu whakataki a Ngāhuia Te Awekōtuku. 

Maharaia Winiata

I te tau 1954 ka riro i a Maharaia Winiata te tohu kairangi i te Whare Wānanga o Edinburgh. Ko ia te Māori tuatahi kia whiwhi i te tohu kairangi mai i te whare wānanga o tāwāhi. I whakairo kupu kōrero a Winiata i te maheni a Te Tari Māori,  arā, Te Ao Hou, me te Journal of the Polynesian Society. I whakarewaina tāna pukapuka The changing role of the leader in Maori society (1967) i muri i tōna matenga.

Ētahi atu ngaio Māori

Ko Ngāpare Hopa te wahine Māori tuatahi kia whakamānawatia ki te tohu kairangi mai i te Whare Wānanga o Oxford i te tau 1977. I te tau 1955 ka riro i a Bruce Biggs te tohu kairangi wetereo mai i te Whare Wānanga o Indiana. I te tau 1962 ka riro mai i a Hugh Kāwharu te tohu mai i Oxford; i te tau 1965 ka whiwhi a Patu Hōhepa i tāna i te Whare Wānanga o Indiana; i te tau 1968 ka riro i a Hirini Mead tāna, ā, i te tau 1970 ka riro i a Ranginui Walker tāna tohu kairangi. Katoa rātou he mātanga, he tohunga tuhi kōrero.

Ngā tuhinga ngaio o muri mai

He taiea ngā whakapau kaha a Bruce Biggs ki te mātauranga wetereo Māori. Ko tāna e rongonui nei ia pea ko tana pukapuka, Let’s learn Māori (i te tau 1969). I te tau 1994 ka whakaputa a Mason Durie i tana pukapuka Whaiora: Māori health development. I te tau 1961 ka tuhia e Hirini Mead tāna pukapuka mō te toi Māori, Art of Māori carving.

I te tau 1992 ka tuhi a Te Ahukaramū Charles Royal i Te haurapa: an introduction to researching tribal histories and traditions, he tuhinga i whakamahi whānuitia ai e ngā kairangahau Māori. I te tau 1999 ka whakaputa a Linda Tuhiwai Smith i Decolonizing methodologies, he pukapuka e pā ana ki ngā rangahau taketake. I horapa whānui tāna pukapuka, hei puna mō ngā mātauranga Māori, ngā mātauranga taketake me ngā wānanga.

I te tau 2009 ka tuhi a Royal i Te ngākau: he wānanga i te mātauranga i roto i te reo Māori. I te tau 2014 ka tuhi a Poia Rewi rāua ko Rāwinia Higgins i The value of the Māori language: Te hua o te reo Māori, e pā ana ki te oranga o te reo Māori i te tau 2014. 

Ngā tautōhito i te rautau 2000

Nō te rautau 2000 kua puawai haere te uru haere a te Māori ki ngā mahi rangahau, tuhituhi hoki. I te tau 1992 ka whakatūria te kāhui tumu kōrero o Te Pouhere Kōrero. I te tau 2006 ka whakatūria te rōpū Māori mō ngā tikanga ā-iwi, arā, te Māori Association of Social Sciences, ā, i ia rua tau hui ai te rōpū.

He maha ngā tumuaki Māori kua whakatūria e ngā whare wānanga, pērā i a Jim Peters i Te Whare Wānanga o Tāmaki-makaurau; i a Piri Sciascia i Te Whare Wānanga o Te Ūpoko o Te Ika me Linda Tuhiwai Smith i Te Whare Wānanga o Waikato. Ko Smith te wahine Māori tuatahi kia noho ki tēnei tūranga. He Māori ngā ūpoko o ngā wānanga e toru – a Te Wānanga o Aotearoa, Te Whare Wānanga o Awanuiārangi me Te Wānanga o Raukawa.

I te tau 2002 ka whakatūria Ngā Pae o te Māramatanga hei tautoko i ngā rangahau me ngā tuhinga Māori.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Basil Keane, 'Ngā tuhinga me te rangahau - Ngā tuhinga ngaio', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-tuhinga-me-te-rangahau/page-3 (accessed 14 August 2020)

He kōrero nā Basil Keane, i tāngia i te 22 Oct 2014