Kōrero: Ngā tuhinga me te rangahau

Whārangi 1. Te tuhi reta me ngā niupepa Māori

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

He tuku kōrero ā-waha te Māori i ngā wā o mua. Nō te haerenga mai o ngā mihinare kātahi ka akona e rātou te Māori ki te pānui me te tuhi. Ko ngā tuhinga tōmua rawa a te Māori ko ngā tauira a ēnei mihinare. He maha hoki ngā reta i tuhia e te Māori i te rautau 1800 – nā rātou rānei i whakamahi i ngā mihinare, i ētahi atu Māori hei kaituhi.  

Ngā reta Māori

He huhua tonu ngā reta hei akiaki i ngā āpiha o te kāwanatanga. I te wā o te pakanga a te Tai Tokerau ki te Karauna, ka tuhi reta te rangatira o Ngāpuhi, a Hōne Heke Pōkai ki a Kāwana Kerei. I te tau 1845 ka pātai ia, ‘I ahatia te mahara atawhai o Ingarangi? Kei roto rānei i ōna pūrepo me ōna matā?’1

I te tau 1847, i mua noa atu i tōna whakawahinga hei kīngi, ka tuhi reta a Pōtatau Te Wherowhero ki a Kuini Wikitōria: ‘E hine, whakarongo mai rā ki ngā kōrero e haere ana, e mea ana ō Minita ka murua harakoretia ngā whenua a ngā Māori, ka pouri te ngākau.’2 I roto i tāna reta i te tau 1868, ka mea te kaingārahu o Ngā Ruahine, a Tītokowaru mō te kaitangata. ‘E kore au e mate; ka mate anō te mate, ka ora anō ahau.’3 Inā te tini o ngā reta a ngā rangatira kei roto i ngā kohinga a Te Mākarini me Kerei. 

Ngā niupepa reo Māori

I waenganui i te rautau 1800, māringanui te aranga mai o ngā niupepa Māori, i puta ai he taumata kōrero mā te Māori, arā, mō ana tuhinga ki ngā niupepa.  He maha ngā reta i tuhia ki ngā niupepa reo Māori nā te kāwanatanga i tautoko. I muri iho i te hui i Kohimarama i te tau 1860, he huhua ngā reta mai i ngā iwi o te motu ka tāia ki roto i te Maori Messenger – Te Karere Maori. I tīkina ngā kaupapa kōrero maha, ko te whenua, te pakanga, te tino rangatiratanga me te Kīngitanga ētahi o aua kaupapa.

Ngā niupepa Māori

Nō muri mai ka tuhia ngā reta ki ngā niupepa nā te Māori motuhake i whakatū, i whakahaere. Nā konei ka whai reo ngā whakaaro a te Māori ki te ao. Ko ngā tāpaetanga whakaaro a ngā ētita, he whakaaro Māori tonu.

Ko Wiremu Pātara Te Tuhi te ētita o Te Hokioi e Rere atu na, te niupepa a te Kīngitanga. I taea e ia te whakaputa i ngā whakaaro o te Kīngitanga i mua tonu i te pakanga i Waikato. Ko Te Wananga te niupepa o te rōpū whakahē i ngā hoko whenua i Te Matau-a-Māui. Ko ngā kaiwhakahaere ko Hēnare Tomoana rāua ko Karaitiana Takamoana. He makamaka kōhatu tā rāua ko te niupepa kāwanatanga o Te Waka Maori o Nui Tireni.

Ko Ihāia Hūtana te ētita o Huia Tangata Kotahi, ko Pūrākau Maika te ētita o Te Puke ki Hikurangi. Ko ngā nuipepa ēnei a te Kotahitanga. Ka whakaputa tētahi, tētahi, i āna tirohanga, i āna tirohanga ki te ao tōrangapū. Nā Te Whatahoro i ētita Te Tiupiri, he niupepa whakahau i ngā mahi a te Kotahitanga. 

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Tohutoro Vincent O'Malley, Bruce Stirling and Wally Penetito, eds., The Treaty of Waitangi companion: Māori and Pākehā from Tasman to today. Tāmakimakaurau: Auckland University Press, 2010, p. 55. Back
  2. Tohutoro The Treaty of Waitangi companion, p. 67. Back
  3. Tohutoro Marian Maguire, Titokowaru’s dilemma. Ōtautahi: PaperGraphica, 2011, p. 61. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Basil Keane, 'Ngā tuhinga me te rangahau - Te tuhi reta me ngā niupepa Māori', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-tuhinga-me-te-rangahau/page-1 (accessed 25 October 2020)

He kōrero nā Basil Keane, i tāngia i te 22 Oct 2014