Kōrero: Ngā tuhinga me te rangahau

Whārangi 2. Ngā kōrero tuku iho

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Te Rangikāheke

I waenga pū o te rautau 1800, ka tīmata te Māori ki te tuhi i ā rātou kōrero tuku iho. Ko Wiremu Maihi Te Rangikāheke tētahi o ngā kaituhi rongonui o te wā, ā, e ai ki ētahi ko ia te tumu kōrero tuatahi o Aotearoa. E 21 ngā tuhinga i whakaputaina e Te Rangikāheke, ā, i whai wāhi ia ki ngā tuhinga 17 a ētahi atu – tata tonu ki te 800 ngā whārangi i tuhia e ia. Nā Te Rangikāheke te nuinga o ngā kōrero i te pukapuka o Hōri Kerei, Ko nga moteatea, me nga hakirara o nga Maori (i te tau 1853). Nāna anō te hauwhā o ngā kōrero o roto i te pukapuka o Ko nga mahinga a nga tupuna Maori (i te tau 1854) me te whakapākehātanga a Polynesian mythology (i te tau 1855).

John White

Mai i ngā tau i waenganui o te rautau 1800 ka utua te Māori e te kaituhi e John White, kia tuhia ā rātou kōrero ki te reo Māori. He huhua ngā Māori i kapo atu i tēnei tūāhua ki te whakatakoto i ā rātou kōrero kia mau tonu ai. Ko ētahi o ngā kaituhi ko Hoani Meihana Te Rangiotū, ko Te Whatahoro Jury, ko Hāmiora Pio. He nui ngā here me ngā ture i ūhia ki runga i ngā tuhinga i mua i te whakaputanga. He wā anō, ka whakahē ētahi kaituhi ki te whāki i ngā kōrero, nā te whānau, nā te iwi rānei i whakahē. 

Te Hautaka o te Rōpū Poronīhia

He tokomaha anō ngā Māori i tuhi mā te Hautaka o te Rōpū Poronīhia i waihangatia i te tau 1892. Ko ētahi o ngā kaituhi Māori tuatahi ko Hare Hongi nō Ngāpuhi, ko Hoani Tūnuiārangi nō Ngāti Kahungunu, ko Timi Waata Rimini, ko Tutu Tamari, ko Te Kāhui Kararehe (nō Taranaki katoa), ko Hoani Nahe me Takaanui Tarakawa (nō Te Arawa).

Ngā hītori ā-iwi

He Pākehā kē te kaituhi o ngā kōrero tuku iho a ngā iwi maha. Heoi, ko ētahi nā te Māori tonu i tuhituhi.

I ngā tau tōmua o te rautau 1900, ka tāmate haere te mātauranga Māori. Nō konei ka hangaia Te Komiti Tūpai o Tānenuiārangi hei whakaora i ngā mātauranga taketake o Wairarapa. He nui ngā kōrero i whiriwhiria e rātou, ā, ka waitohua e rātou ki te tohu o te komiti hei whakaū i ngā kōrero tika.

I te tau 1944 ka tuhi a Tiaki Mitchell mō Ngāti Kahungunu i roto i tāna pukapuka o Takitimu. I taua tau ka whakaputaina e Āpirana Ngata te Rauru-nui-a-Toi lectures and Ngati Kahungunu origins. Nō te tau 1972 ka tāia anō tēnei pukapuka. Nō te tau 1995 ka whakaputa murimatetia te pukapuka a Pei Te Hurinui Jones e pā ana ki a Tainui. 

Ngā hītori i te ao hou

Ko te kaupapa o te tuhingaroa paerua a Ruka Broughton ko tōna iwi ko Ngā Rauru. Nō muri i tōna matenga ka whakaputaina ōna tuhinga e pā ana ki te kaingārahu ki a Tītokowaru. He reo Māori ēnei pukapuka e rua. Nā Wiremu Wi Hongi rāua ko Patu Hōhepa i mahi tahi me Jeff Sisson ki te tuhi i The puriri trees are laughing (1987), he tuhinga e pā ana ki a Ngāpuhi. Nō muri noa mai i tōna matenga ka whakaputaina te pukapuka a Rongowhakaata Halbert e pā ana ki ngā iwi o Te Tai Rāwhiti, e kīia ana ko Horouta. I te tau 2007 ka whakaputa a Ranginui Walker i Ōpōtiki-mai-tawhiti: capital of Whakatōhea, ā, i te tau 2005 ka whakaputa a Tony Sole i a Ngāti Ruanui: a history. Ko Te Maire Te Tau rāua ko Atholl Anderson ngā ētita o Ngāi Tahu: a migration history (i te tau 2008).

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Basil Keane, 'Ngā tuhinga me te rangahau - Ngā kōrero tuku iho', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-tuhinga-me-te-rangahau/page-2 (accessed 26 October 2020)

He kōrero nā Basil Keane, i tāngia i te 22 Oct 2014