Kōrero: Papakura, Mākereti

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Ngā whakaahua

Papakura, Makereti

1873–1930

Nō Tūhourangi, nō Ngāti Wahiao; he wahine whai mana, he kaiārahi, he kairangahau matawaka

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e June Northcroft-Grant,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1996.

I whānau a Margaret Pattison Thom ki Matatā, kei Te Moana-a-Toi (Bay of Plenty) i te 20 o Oketopa 1873; ko tōna īngoa i mōhio whānuitia, ko Mākereti (arā, ko Maggie) Papakura. Nō Ingarangi tōna pāpā, a William Arthur Thom; he kaitiaki toa tāna mahi. Nō muri nei, ka mahi ia i te Kōti Kaiwhakawā Takiwā (Resident Magistrate's Court) i Rotorua, kātahi ka heke ki te whare kōti i Te Wairoa. Ko tōna whaea ko Pia Ngarotū Te Rihi, he wahine rangatira nō Ngāti Wāhiao, he hapū karangatanga nō Tūhourangi; he uri whakaheke a Tūhourangi i ngā rangatira o Te Arawa, i a Tamatekapua rātau ko Ngātoroirangi, ko Hei, ko Ika. Kāore i roa i muri mai o tana whānautanga, ka haria a ia ki te taiwhenua, ki Parekārangi, kia atawhaitia e ōna kaumātua i reira, e Mārara Marotaua rāua ko Maihi Te Kakau Parāoa; ko ngā mātua kēkē ēnei o tōna whaea, ki te taha o te pāpā o ngā mātua ake o Pia. Poto katoa ngā whakapapa, ngā kōrero tawhito tae atu ki ngā tikanga a te iwi, nā rāua a Mākereti i ako.

Kia eke rā anō ia ki te tekau tau, kātahi anō a Mākereti ka kōrero Pākehā, arā, i te wā tonu i tīmata ai tōna pāpā ki te whakaako i a ia ki te mātauranga Pākehā. Nā āna haere ki ngā kura i Rotorua me Tauranga, āpiti atu ki ngā āwhina a tētehi kaiwhakaako wahine o Ingarangi, me ngā tau e toru i pau i a ia ki te kura mō ngā kōtiro Māori o Hukarere (Hukarere Native Girls' School) i Ahuriri (Napier), ka whiwhi a ia i ngā mōhiotanga o te reo me te manawanui me te tau ōna ki te takataka haere i waenganui i ngā ao e rua, arā, o te Māori me te Pākehā. Ka mutu te kura a Mākereti, ka haere ia ki Te Whakarewarewa noho ai, ki te kāinga tūturu o tōna iwi.

Nō muri i te hūnga whakaiki o Tarawera i te tau 1886, kua ora haere ngā iwi o Rotorua, ka hikitia ki te awaawa puia i Te Whakarewarewa ngā mahi tūruhi i tīmata mai i Te Wairoa i ngā pahī ki ngā tūāpapa kua hau rā ngā rongo ki te ao, ki Ō-tū-kapua-rangi rāua ko Te Tarata (Pink and White Terraces). I hua ngā mātauranga o Mākereti ki te whakamanuhiri, ki te whakangahau, ki te kōrero i ngā pakiwaitara, i raro i ngā akoranga tautōhito a te kaiārahi rā, a Te Paea (Sophia) Hinerangi. He wahine a Mākereti i rongonuitia tōna ātaahua, tōna whanonga whakahoahoa me tōna hinengaro atamai, ā, nā reira a ia i whāia ai hei kaiārahi. Nō tētehi rangi, ka pātaitia e tētehi manuhiri whēnā he īngoa Māori tuarua tōna; kātahi a Mākereti ka huri, ka kitea tonutia atu i te ngāwhā, i a Papakura e hū ana, ā, ka whakautu tonu atu, ko Papakura tōna īngoa, arā, ko Maggie Papakura. Mai i tērā wā, i karangatia whānuitia a ia ko 'Guide Maggie Papakura'. I mau anō hoki tērā īngoa ki ōna huānga tata.

Ka moe a Mākereti i a Francis (Frank) Joseph Dennan, he kairūri, i Te Wairoa i te kāinga o tōna pāpā i te 7 o Mei 1891. Nō te paunga o taua tau, ka whānau tā rāua tamaiti, a William Francis (Te Aonui) Dennan; he huatahi a Te Aonui nā Mākereti. He poto noa iho te wā i noho ai rāua ko tana tāne i Te Wairarapa; nō te wehenga mai o te hoa ki Taupō mahi ai, ka hoki mai a Mākereti ki Te Whakarewarewa. Kore rawa rāua i noho tahi i muri atu, ā, nō te tau 1900, ka tono a Mākereti ki te ture kia wehe rāua. E tupu ake ana tana tamaiti, ka kimi huarahi a Mākereti i te ārahi tūruhi hei oranga mō rāua.

Kātahi ka tino hau ōna rongo ki te ao i te tau 1901; i mua i te aroaro o te tini tangata, i riro nāna te Tiuka me tōna hoa rangatira o Cornwall, o York i pōwhiri, i tō rāua taenga mai ki Rotorua. Whai i muri i tērā, kātahi ka tino whāia rawatia a ia hei kaiārahi. I mua atu o te tau 1910, e hia nei ōna haerenga ki Ahitereiria, ahakoa he poto noa iho te noho, ā, i puta ētehi kōrero mōna i roto i ngā pānui rongo kōrero mō ngā tāngata hau o roto i ngā nūpepa me ngā makahīni, mō ana hīkoi i ngā wā whakaratarata i reira. He wahine i manakohia e te hunga tango whakaahua, pērā i te hunga hau nei i a E. W. Payton rātau ko C. P. Parkerson, ko George Isles. E hokona whānuitia ana ngā kāri poutāpeta e whakaahua ana i a ia e mau kākahu Pākehā ana, kākahu Māori kē rānei, me te kāmeta māhunga i mau ia i a ia e ārahi manuhiri ana.

He āwangawanga nui ki a Mākereti i ngā wā katoa kia noho pai te oranga o tōna iwi. Pū noa ana te tohu rangatira o Mākereti, whakanuia ana a ia e tōna iwi kāinga; ka mutu, i kaha tonu ia ki te hāpai i ngā tikanga e riro mai ai i te iwi Māori te mana motuhake. He tāngata whai mana ōna hoa, he kaihautū, he mema pāremata katoa, pērā i a Te Rangi Hīroa, i a Māui Pōmare, me Āpirana Ngata. Kāre ia i tōmuri; he kakama tonu ia ki te tono āwhina i a rātau.

He ngira tuitui te hinengaro o Mākareti, koirā i ngākaunui ai ia ki te hāpai i ētehi o ngā āhuatanga o ngā tikanga Māori kia whiwhi hua ohaoha ai tōna iwi. Nāna tētehi pukapuka i tuhi, he mea whakaīngoa ko te Guide to the hot lakes district (1905). Ko ia rā rāua ko tana taina ko Pēra (Bella), i tahuri ai ki te whakatū i tētehi kapa haka; he tohunga te taina ki te waiata, ki te poi hoki. Ko ētehi o ngā waiata a taua rōpū rā, nā te minita rā (ā, nō muri iho ko ia te pīhopa), nā Pererika Pēneti (Frederick Bennett) i tito.

Nō te tau 1910, ka pōwhiritia a Mākereti rātau ko tana kapa haka kia taki haere ki tētehi whakakitenga ki Poihākena (Sydney) ki te mahi i ā rātau mahi ngahau i reira. I a rātau i Poihākena, ka tū rātau ki te whakangahau; ka mutu, ka hangaia e rātau he tauira o tētehi pā Māori. Nā te kaha pai o tēnei haere, ka tae te tono a tētehi rōpū kaipakihi o Poihākena ki a Mākareti kia tahuri ki te whakahaere i tētehi kapa haka hei whakaatu haere i Poihākena anō; kia mutu tērā, ka rere ki Ingarangi ki te whakauru atu ki ngā mahi taurima e whakanui ana i te Emepaea. Ka whakahuihuitia e Mākereti he kapa haka nō roto i tōna hapū, e 40 rātau; ko tana taina ko Pēra tētehi; ko tana tungāne, ko Tiki (Dick) Papakura, ko Mita Taupopoki (te rangatira o Tūhourangi), me tētehi rōpū anō, he mea āta kōwhiri mō ō rātau reo reka, me te pai o rātau hei kaiwhakakite. I wehe atu rātau i Poihākena, ka haere ki Rānana (London) i Āperira o te tau 1911.

Tērā atu ngā momo kāinga i tū rātau ki te whakaatu i ā rātau mahi whakangahau; ko te 'Crystal Palace', ko te 'Palace Theatre' me te 'White City' ētehi; i whakangahautia e rātau ngā mano tāngata ki te waiata, ki te haka, ki te kōrero pakiwaitara me te whaikōrero. I haria atu e rātau ētehi whakakitenga taonga Māori o mua, he whare nui me te pātaka ētehi. He ōrite ki ngā mahi ngahau te pai o aua taonga rā, ki ngā huihuinga tāngata. Āritarita ana ngā nūpepa i ā rātau mahi katoa, tae atu ki te iriiringa o tētehi pēpi i whānau ki tētehi o rātau i muri tonu i te taenga ki Ingarangi. Ko te mea tino whakaharahara ko te whakarewanga o tētehi waka i te hui waka roera o Henley (Henley Royal Regatta), e 45 putu te roa, ko Te Arawa te īngoa.

Ahakoa ngā kōrero papai mō te haere nei, i mate rātau i te kore moni, ā, nō ngā rā whakamutunga o 1911 ka tau te whakaaro o te rōpū, me hoki mai rātau ki Aotearoa nei. Nō te taenga ki te kāinga i te tīmatanga o te tau 1912, ka puta ngā riri o ngā iwi o Te Whakarewarewa ki a rātau i te pōwhiri; he pāmamae nō te iwi kāinga i te matenga o tētehi o te rōpū haere, ka tahi; ka rua, he whakaaro nō te hāwhe o rātau ki te noho tonu atu ki Ingarangi. Ko te paunga o ngā moni te take i tino hē rawa atu ai taua haere; ka puta te whakapae, ko te wāhi nui o te raruraru nō Mākereti.

Ahakoa te raruraru, i hoki rawa ia ki Te Whakarewarewa mō te wā poto noa iho. Kua tūtaki kē a ia ki a Richard Charles Staples-Browne i āna hāereere i Aotearoa i mua atu; i a Mākereti e noho ana i Ingarangi, ka tūtaki anō rāua. Nāwai i whakahoahoa, kua whakaipoipo rāua ki a rāua, me te aha, nō te 26 o Noema 1911, ka puta te pānui i roto i te Observer o Rānana mō tō rāua taumautanga. I hoki atu a Mākereti ki Ingarangi, ā, nō te 12 o Hune 1912, ka moe rāua ko Staples-Browne i Kensington.

Ko tana tāne hou he kaipupuri whenua rangatira; nō muri i tō rāua mārenatanga, ka noho a Mākereti i Oddington Grange, e tata ana ki Oxford. Ka mura ngā ahi o te pakanga i te tau 1914, ka whakatuwheratia e ia tōna whare me ōna huinga rūma i tētehi hōtēra i Rānana ki ngā hōia o Aoteroa. He tohu tautoko, manaaki hoki tēnei i tōna iwi kāinga. I kitea tōna kaha ki te hāereere whānui i Uropi i mua o te pakanga, ā, i muri hoki.

Nō waenganui i te tau 1924, i wehe tūturu rāua ko tāna tāne tuarua, ēngari i mau tonu tana noho ki Ingarangi. Kāre i waihotia te nuinga o tana paenga taonga, he whakairo, he kākahu, he pounamu nō Te Whakarewarewa katoa, he mea whakarite nāna hei whakarawe i tētehi o ōna rūma i tōna kāinga i Oxford. I mōhiotia whānuitia ko te Rūma o Aotearoa; i manaakitia e ia āna manuhiri i konei, i kauwhau kōrero rānei i ngā kōrero a ngā tūpuna Māori ki ngā ākonga, ki ngā tohunga tikanga tangata me ērā atu manuhiri e aro mai ana.

I whakauru atu a ia ki te whare wānanga o Oxford i te tau 1926 hei ākonga mō te tohu paetahi BSc mō te mātauranga tikanga tangata. Ko ngā pukapuka kōrero, ngā pukapuka rātaka, me ngā rātaka i kohikohia e ia i te wā i a ia e ora ana, nāna i whakaemi, i āta titiro, i whakaatu ngā rerenga kētanga, kātahi ka tuhituhia anō hei tuhinga whakapae māna. Nō taua tau anō, ka hoki mai ia ki Aotearoa nei ki te patapatai atu ki ōna pakeke mō ngā rārangi take o tana mahi, ā, kia tautokona mai hoki ia e rātau. Nō te 16 o Āperira 1930, e rua wiki noa iho i mua i te tirotirohanga i tana tuhinga whakapae, ka mate ohorere a Mākereti i Oxford, i te whaturama ā-uaua o te pūtahi o te manawa. Ahakoa ngā amuamu o Tūhourangi, i nehua ia ki te urupā i Oddington kei Oxfordshire, i runga i tōna ake hiahia. Kotahi tau i muri mai, ka whakatūria he tohu whakamaharatanga mōna ki Te Whakarewarewa.

E waru tau i muri mai i te matenga o Mākereti, ka whakapukapukatia tana tuhinga whakapae e T. K. Penniman, te hēkeretari a te komiti mātauranga tikanga tangata i te whare wānanga o Oxford. He hoa tēnei nō Mākereti, he kaiāwhina hoki i a ia i te wā e rangahautia ana e ia tana kaupapa. Ko te pukapuka, ko The old-time Māori, i waiho rā e Mākereti hei whakamaharatanga ki ana kaiako tuatahi, ki a Mārara Marotaua rāua ko Maihi Te Kakau Parāoa, e whakamārama ana me te tātari i ngā tikanga a Te Arawa mā roto mai i te tirohanga wahine. Ka puta ngā kōrero mō ngā āhuatanga o ia rā, o ia rā, āpiti atu ki te manaaki tamariki me te whakawhānautanga; he kōrero katoa ēnei mō te iwi Māori kāre rā i arongia e ngā kaituhituhi tāne; he mea kirimoko noa iho rānei ā rātau tuhinga, ina tuhi ana rātau i ēnei take. Nā runga i tōna kaha ongaonga ka whakatikaia katoatia e Mākereti ēnei kaupapa whakaaro kūare a ngā kairangahau matakawa Pākehā.

He wāhi ahurei tō te pukapuka nei, nō te mea ko te tuatahi o tērā peka o te mātauranga tikanga tangata e rangahau ana, ā, e whakaatu ana i te mauri o ia iwi kia whakapukapukatia whānuitia e te pūkenga Māori; ēngari, nō te whakapukapukatanga kāre i arongia e te tangata, tatari rawa ake ki te tau 1986, kātahi anō ka tāia tuaruatia. Ko te mea mīharo rawa atu pea o The old-time Māori, hāunga te mātauranga o te whakatakoto i ngā take, i whakaūngia taua pukapuka rā i runga i ngā toi me ngā akoranga taketakenga i mahia tuatahitia e ia, ā, i akona e ia i runga anō i ngā tikanga tuku iho a ngā tūpuna. I tua atu i tērā, ka āta kitea atu te mōhio o te kaituhi o taua pukapuka ki tōna ake tuakiri, me te mahara anō ki ōna tātai iho me tana kawenga ki tōna iwi i ngā wā katoa. Kua mōhio kē a T. K. Penniman ki ēnei āhuatanga; koira te take i whakamihi ai ia ki a Mākereti i tana tuhinga i te tīmatanga o te pukapuka me te kī, ko te tino pūnga mai o tōna wairua nui whakaharahara ko tōna mōhio i ahu mai ia i whea.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

June Northcroft-Grant. 'Papakura, Mākereti - Papakura, Makereti', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1996. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/3p5/papakura-makereti (accessed 22 January 2019)