Kōrero: Biggs, Bruce Grandison

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Biggs, Bruce Grandison

1921–2000

Ngaati Maniapoto; kaimaatai momo tangata, kaiwetereo, toa o te reo Maaori

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Andrew Pawley, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau i te 2019. He mea whakamāori nā Te Haumihiata Mason.

Hau ana te rongo o te noho puukenga o Bruce Biggs, engari he tangata puiaki anoo, he kaihanga whakahirahira o te whare maatauranga. I ngaa whareako Maaori o ngaa whare waananga, ko ia te tangata kawenga nui katoa o te rautau rua tekau. I Te Whare Waananga o Taamakimakaurau ka whakawhanaketia e ia te marautanga whare waananga tuatahi moo te maatai i te reo Maaori, i te ahurea me te maataakoorero Maaori, naana anoo i whakangungu te hunga i tahuri ake i muri mai, ki te whakawhanake hootaka aahua rite ki aana ki ngeetehi atu whare waananga o Aotearoa. Naana i tiimata te hootaka tuatahi moo te maatauranga wetereo o te ao hou ki teetehi whare waananga o Aotearoa, naa toona kaha anoo i puaawai ai ngaa mahi rangahau wetereo o ngaa reo o Poronihia taha taatari, taha whakamaarama, taha hiitori i ngaa tau 1960 me te 1970. Ko ia anoo teetehi i whakatuu i te Puuranga Oro a ngaai Maaori me Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa (Archive of Maaori and Pacific Sound) i Te Whare Waananga o Taamakimakaurau. 

Tau toomua

I whaanau mai a Bruce Grandison Biggs ki Taamakimakaurau i te 4 o Hepetema 1921, te maataamua a Mary Grandison raaua ko tana taane, a Thomas Herbert (Bert) Biggs. Naa too raatou matua i whakapapa ai a Bruce raaua ko tana tuahine, a Patricia, ki a Ngaati Maniapoto, he hononga anoo oo raaua ki te hapuu o Parewaeono o te marae o Te Keeti, i Ootorohanga. I New Lynn te whaanau e noho ana, ka mutu, i whakahaeretia e Bert Biggs teetehi toa taputapu maaroo i Queen Street. I haere a Bruce ki te Kura Tuatahi o New Lynn, atu i reira ki Mt Albert Grammar, ko oona hoa kura ko Robert Muldoon (Piriimia o Aotearoa atu i te 1975 ki te 1984) me te hoa tata o Bruce, te tumu koorero a Keith Sinclair. Atu i reira ka haere kia whakangungua i te Kaareti Whakangungu Kaiako o Taamakimakaurau. I te haerenga ki Rotorua i ngaa hararei kura, ka toko ake te hiahia moohio ki te ahurea Maaori, engari noo muri kee mai i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao rawa i matatau ai ia ki te koorero Maaori. Kua kitea keetia tana kaingaakau ki te puoro tautito me te puoro arotini i toona ohinga, i tana whakatangitangi puutaatara (trumpet) i te peene kanikani o ngaa Boom Bah Boys, i kaingaakautia i New Lynn i ngaa tau whakamutunga o te 1930. Noona ka tangata, ka pakari te hanga o te tinana, he tangata purotu, autaia tonu te taaroaroa. 

Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao

Atu i te tau 1942 ki te 1945 he haihana a Biggs i Whiitii (he kaiwhakatangi piukara anoo) i te Matua Tuatoru o Aotearoa, ka mutu, i oona tau ki Whiitii, ka oho ake tana hiahia maatai i ngaa reo me te ahurea o Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa. Naa tana mahi whakapaapaa haere i waatea ai ia ki te huri haere i Viti Levu, ki te tuutakitaki haere ki a ngaai Whiitii maa. Koia nei te huarahi i matatau ai ia ki te reo Whiitii Whaanui, i kohikohi raarangi kupu ai, te koorero wetereo me te kohikohi pakiwaitara a ngeetehi mita motuhake o taua takiwaa. I tiimata tana hononga auroa ki te Porihanga o Poronihia i te waa o te pakanga, i tana tuutakitanga ki te kanohi hoomiromiro o te hautaka, a Clyde Taylor. Ko ngaa taanga tuatahi a Biggs, he koorero moo ngaa mita o ngaa Ba o Whiitii ki te Uru, me teetehi moo ngaa panga o Whiitii, i taaia ki te Journal of the Polynesian Society i te tau 1948. I a ia e hooia ana i Whiitii ka whaanau mai a Mere Veremalumu Biggs (i te tau 1945), taa raaua kootiro ko Laisa Siganisucu Drova, he wahine noo Nausori ki Whiitii, i mate nei i te tau 1951. I whakatupuhia a Mere e tana kuia o Whiitii raaua ko tana taane tuarua.  

Whakaako i ngaa kura

I muri o te pakanga ka hoki mai a Bruce ki Aotearoa, ka mutu, i te 22 o Tiihema 1945 ka maarena raaua ko teetehi hoa kaiako, a Joy Mercia Te Ruai Hetet, ki Te Kuuiti. Haere atu ana te tokorua nei ki te whakaako i Te Kao, i Te Tai Tokerau, kaatahi ka huunuku i te tau 1946 ki Ruatooria i Te Tai Raawhiti.  I ngaa tau e rima o muri mai ko Bruce te tumuaki o teetehi Kura Maaori i Waiorongomai, i te remu o Hikurangi Maunga, me tana whai harangotengote i tana Tohu Paetahi mai i te Kaareti Whare Waananga o Taamakimakaurau. I taakaro whutupooro, i hii ika, ka aata tahuri hoki ki te maatai i te Maaoritanga. Tokotoru aa raaua tamariki ko Joy, ko Garth (i whaanau i te 1947), raatou ko Susan (i te 1949), ko John (i te 1950).

Puukenga maatai Maaori

Ka tata haere a Biggs ki te 30, e whakaako ana i teetehi kura tuatahi mamao ki taiwhenua, kaaore anoo i tutuki tana tohu whare waananga me te kore oona e whai huarahi atu ki te whai tuuturu i te maatauranga. Noohea e moohiotia ai ka whai oranga ia i te ao maatauranga. Kaatahi ka ara noa ake teetehi tuuranga i te Kaareti Whare Waananga o Taamakimakaurau. I te whakamutunga o te tau 1950 ka paanuitia e Ralph Piddington, te kopounga ahorangi tumu hou moo te maatauranga tikanga tangata, teetehi tuuranga puukenga reo Maaori. Kaatahi anoo ka whakatuuria teenei momo tuuranga ki teetehi whare waananga i Aotearoa. Ahakoa kaaore anoo i tutuki tana Tohu Paetahi, ka tono a Bruce moo te tuuranga, ka kopoua atu, ka tiimata ki te tuuranga i te tau 1951. I ana tau toomua ki Taamakimakaurau, ka haere ngaatahi tana whakaako me tana akoako, taapirihia atu ana e ia te maatauranga tikanga tangata hei kaupapa matua anoo ki te taha o te maatauranga, tutuki ana tana Tohu Paetahi i te tau 1952. Ka tutuki i a ia tana Tohu Paerua moo te maatauranga tikanga tangata i te tau 1955, ko te kaupapa o tana tuhinga roa ko te maarenatanga Maaori.

I whakaakona e Biggs te reo Maaori hei waahanga o teetehi akoranga tikanga tangata i te tau 1951, ka whakaakona tuatahitia hoki teetehi akoranga reo Maaori motuhake ki te taumata I i te tau o muri mai. I te tahuri a te Tari Tikanga Tangata ki te whakaako i te reo Maaori ki te taumata II i te tau 1952, ka paaia e ngaa puukenga maataamua o te Kura Toi, i too raatou whakaaro he reo hauwarea noa te reo Maaori, kaaore oona maataakoorero tika e rangatira ai, e whai kiko ai te whai. I te tau o muri mai kua oti kee i a Biggs me oona hoa mahi te whakariterite i a raatou anoo. Tahuri ana raatou ki te kawe i oo raatou hoa mahi, me te tohu atu kei te iwi Maaori ngeetehi o ngaa maataakoorero whakaharahara katoa o te ao, ko ngeetehi koorero kua taaia e George Grey i roto i Nga mahi a nga tupunaPolynesian mythology. Whakaaehia ana te akoranga taumata II, ka whakaakona e Biggs ngaa akoranga e rua atu i te tau 1954.

I te paunga o te tau 1955 ka haere a Bruce moo te rua tau ki te whai i tana Tohu Kairangi wetereo i te Whare Waananga o Indiana, teetehi o ngaa pokapuu matua o te ao moo te wetereo, taha whakatakoto. I whakapono ia maa te whakangungutanga wetereo e kaha ake ai ia ki te whakawhanake i te mahi rangahau me te whakaako i te reo Maaori. He mahi uaua tonu, te whakapau hinengaro ki tana akoranga, te mahi i te raumati ki ngaa hapori o ngaa Iwi Taketake o Amerika ki Arizona me Karapoonia, me te tuhi anoo i teetehi tuhinga roa, katoa atu i roto i te rua tau. Heoi, whai hua ana oona hekenga werawera. Whakaatu ana tana tuhinga roa o te 1957 moo te weteoro me te whakatakotoranga o te kiianga Maaori, ko te kiianga weteoro iti katoa kee, kaua te kupu, te whakatakotoranga hira katoa kei raro mai i te aho koorero i te reo Maaori, me tana whakamahi i ngeetehi paearu ookawa paamaaro tonu ki te whakaputa i teetehi whakaroopuutanga momo kupu hou moo te reo Maaori. Taapaea ana i konei te tauira moo te maha atu o ngaa mahi whakamaarama i ngaa aahuatanga wetereo o Poronihia i te ngahurutanga tau o muri mai.

I te hokinga ki Taamakimakaurau i te tau 1957 hei puukenga matua, ka whakatuuria e Biggs te taiwhanga reo tuatahi i te whare waananga, ka tahuri ia ki te whakawhaanui ake i te kohinga taanga e rite ana moo te whakaako i te reo Maaori me te maataakoorero. Ko ngeetehi o ana pukapuka kaupapa Maaori ko te Maori marriage (1960), ko The structure of New Zealand Maaori (1961), ko Let’s learn Maori (1969), ko The complete English–Maori dictionary (1981), ko Nga iwi o Tainui: the traditional history of the Tainui people (naa raaua ko Pei Te Hurinui Jones, 1995), me Kimihia te mea ngaro: seek that which is lost (2006). Ko ia anoo te kanohi hoomiromiro o ngeetehi kohinga tuhinga Maaori maha tonu, te waiata me te toikupu, me tana whakapau i te tini haora ki te whakapai ake i te Dictionary of the Maori language a H.W. Williams i a ia e noho ana hei mema, i muri mai hei kaiwhakahuihui i teetehi komiti o te motu, i aata whakatuuria ki te mahi i te mahi.   

I te tau 1958 ka whakatuuria e Biggs raaua ko Jim Hollyman te Roopuu Wetereo o Aotearoa, i te tau o muri iho ka whakaakona e Biggs te ‘Introduction to descriptive linguistics’ hei pepa whiriwhiri ki te taumata II o te maatauranga tikanga tangata – te akoranga paetahi tuatahi moo te wetereo i whakaakona ki Aotearoa.  

Tae rawa ki te tiimatanga o ngaa tau 1960, e whakahaere ana ia i ngaa mahi o ia raa i te Tari Maatauranga Tikanga Tangata, me te hoomiromiro anoo i te Journal of the Polynesian Society, tae atu hoki ki te whakaako akoranga reo Maaori me te maataakoorero, te wetereo, me te whakahaere anoo i ngeetehi kaupapa rangahau. 

I te tau 1960 ka haere a Biggs i tana haerenga tuatahi o ngeetehi haerenga e rua ki Papua New Guinea. Whakakiikiingia ana ia e teetehi tohunga tikanga tangata paapori, e Ralph Bulmer, kia hono atu ki teetehi hootaka maatauranga whakauruuru ki te maatai i te reo, i ngaa tikanga me te maatauranga taiao o teetehi iwi tauhou, te Kalam, e noho ana i ngaa pae maunga o te Schrader me te Bismarck. Ohorere ana te tini kaiwetereo i ngaa taataritanga auaha a Bruce moo te puunaha oro uaua o ngaa Kalam.  

Rangahautanga wetereo o Poronihia

Naa te kaimaatai whaipara tangata, naa Roger Green, i whai whakaaro ai a Bruce ki te whakatairite taatai whakapapa reo i runga i te whakaaro o Green ka pai tonu moo ngaa mahi maatai whaipara tangata hei tikanga pakari moo te kimi i te aahua o Poronihia i neheraa. I te tau 1964 ka pau i a Bruce teetehi 10 marama ki te East-West Center i Te Whare Waananga o Hawaii, ka mutu, tae rawa ki te mutunga o te tau, kua tuhia e ia he pepa moo te reo o Rotuma,  ‘Direct and indirect inheritance in Rotuman’, me te noho o teenei hei koorero tuuroa moo te puunaha tikanga mahi. Naa te mahi nei i noho tuatahi mai ai he tikanga tautohu hei whakawhirinaki atu moo te wehewehe i ngaa paparanga kee o nehe i ngaa kupu o te reo o Rotuma. I roto anoo te kohinga nunui tuatahi moo te waihanga anoo i te kupu moo te reo ake o te Taha Raawhiti o Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa, te tupuna ake o ngaa reo o Poronihia me oona anoo reo o Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa ki te raawhiti o Meraniihia.

I ngaa tau 1965–66 ka whakawhiwhia a Green raaua ko Biggs ki ngeetehi puutea nui tonu hei whakatere i teetehi hootaka maaia tonu moo te whakamaarama me te whakatairite i ngaa reo o Poronihia. Ka tiikina atu e Bruce a David Walsh me teetehi tiima tauira kaiaawhina ki te whakatairite kupu o toona 30 reo nei o Poronihia, kia taea ai te waihanga anoo ngaa kupu o te reo ake o too raatou tupuna, te Reo Taketake Ake o Poronihia. I taea anoo e ngaa puutea nei ngeetehi tauira o Taamakimakaurau me Hawaii ki te mahi i ngaa mahi tuuwaenga moo ngeetehi reo o Poronihia kaaore i tino moohiotia. I te ngahurutanga tau o muri mai ka oti mai i ngaa tauira he whakamaarama moo ngaa reo o Luangiua, o Sikaiana, o Nanumea, o Tokelau, o Aitutaki, o Tongareva me Niue. I waenga i te 1967 me te 1990 ka rangahaua e Bruce tonu ngaa whakamaarama moo ngeetehi atu reo maha o Poronihia, atu i te reo Maaori: te reo o East Futuna, o ngā Marquesas, te reo Mele-Fila (i Vanuatu) me te reo Maaori Kuki Airani, me te mahi ngaatahi ki tana tamaahine a Mary, ki te hopu me te whakawhiti pakiwaitara tuku iho o te moutere o Cikobia i Whiitii, ki reo kee. Ka haere tonu aana mahi moo ngaa kupu o te Reo Taketake Ake o Poronihia moo ngaa raa e ora ana ia, i muri nei ki te taha o Ross Clark.

Hawaii ka hoki mai ai ki Taamakimakaurau  

I waenga i ngaa tau 1960 ka kaha whaaia a Bruce e te Tari Wetereo o Te Whare Waananga o Hawaii, ka mutu, i te 1967–68 ka whakaroahia tana whakamatuatanga kia noho mai ai ia hei ahorangi tuuturu ki reira. Ko taa Taamaki ki teenei, ko te taapae i teetehi tuunga ahorangi whaiaro ki te Tari Maaori me te Oceanic Linguistics, ka hoki tuuturu mai ia ki Aotearoa i te tau 1969. I te 1971 ko ia te piki tuuranga moo Piddington hei upoko moo te Tari Maatauranga Tikanga Tangata me te Tari Maaori.

I whakamahia e Biggs tana tuunga i Hawaii kia taea ai e ia teetehi atu whaainga: te pou i teetehi Puuranga Puoro Maaori, Puoro o Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa, ki Taamakimakaurau. Ko te hanganga o teetehi putunga o te motu moo ngaa waiata kua hopukina me te rangahau i te puoro Maaori kua roa noa atu e wawatatia ana e Mervyn McLean, te rangatira o ngaa kaimaatai puoro momo tangata e arotahi ana ki te puoro Maaori. I herea e Biggs tana whakaae ki te tuuranga ahorangi whaiaro ki te kopou a te whare waananga i a McLean ki teetehi tuuranga i te Tari Maatauranga Tikanga Tangata, e taea ai e ia te whakatuu me te whakahaere i te puuranga me te whakaako i te maatai puoro momo tangata. E pupuri ana te puuranga (ko te Puuranga Oro Maaori, Oro o Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa inaaianei) i teetehi kohinga puoro nunui tonu moo te puoro, te koorero tuku iho, te pakiwaitara me te rauemi reo, mai i te 1919 heke iho.

He aahua kee, he aahua kee too Bruce. I te akomanga me te tari he tangata nguengue, he tangata maaroo hoki i oona waa, engari noona ka kaumaatua, ka kaumaatua huatau. Ka tere hoohaa i te manuware, me te rere o te kupu haakiki i a ia. Engari kia tau te noho, i te kaainga, i te paaparakaauta, kia haere ki te hii ika, kii ana te puku i te koorero paki, i te koorero ngahau. Rere ana te kupu whakatoi i ana koorero, te whakatoi i a ia anoo, engari whai mana ana ngaa koorero, ka mahara tonutia. He kupu whai tikanga i ahu mai i te puna hoohonu o te whakatakariri, i tiikina atu ai e ia ina whai kupu ki ngaa hee o te porihanga whaanui. Kaaore ia i rite ki ngeetehi o ngaa taumata tiketike o te maatauranga, kei te kiiwaha te rere o te reo whakawhiti whakaaro, kaua te reo o te pukapuka. 

I reira anoo teetehi tino rerekeetanga. Ko te koorero a Bruce moona anoo he tangata matawhaaiti ia, e kore e whai noa i taa te marea, ka tuupato tonu ia ki te ariaa hou. Ko tana ngaakau toorangapuu kei te kii kia kaua e waiho moorea noa, e rukea atu raanei ngaa kokenga i roa e whawhaitia ana. Ahakoa tana tuupato ki te whakaaro hou, he tangata tino auaha anoo a Biggs. I tana whakakotahi i te hinengaro auaha me te aata taatari i te whakaaro i runga i te hinengaro pono, whakaae ana ia ki rongoaa kee mehemea kua aata aromatawaitia ngaa ara katoa ka taea, ka kitea koiraa te koowhiringa pai katoa.   

I tere kitea, i manaakitia hoki e Biggs te puumanawa, me tana whakahauhau, tana tuku kupu maatau anoo ki te tini tauira, ka mutu, ko teetehi tokomaha tonu i eke ki ngaa taumata o te ao maatauranga. Naa te angitu o te hootaka a te tari Maaori i Taamakimakaurau, ka paraa te huarahi moo ngeetehi hootaka e tika ana ki ngeetehi atu whare waananga o Aotearoa i ngaa tau o te 1970 me te 1980.

Tau toomuri

I te rongo o tana ngaakau e hiahia ana ngeetehi o ana kaimahi matua kia anga kee ngaa mahi a te tari Maaori kaaore nei ia i whakaae, ka riitaea a Bruce i te paunga o te tau 1983, e 62 ana tau. E ai ki a ia, ko ngaa tau i whai mai ngaa tau paarekareka katoa o ana raa ki te ao. Whaaia ana e ia ngeetehi kaupapa maatauranga kua roa e noho taarewa ana, me te kaha ake o tana whakawhanaunga atu anoo ki tana whaanau. Ko te nuinga atu o ana mahi rangahau i pau katoa ki taana i aroha tuatahi ai, ko te reo Maaori, ko te maataakoorero, ko te tikanga tuku iho eeraa, me te haere tonu o tana whakaako i te tari Maaori ina tonoa e ana piki tuuranga. I whaaia tonuhia tana kaupapa moo ngaa Kupu o te Reo Taketake ake o Poronihia, ka mutu, i runga i tana mahi tahi ki a Rangi Moeka’a, ka whakaotia e ia teetehi papakupu nunui moo te reo Maaori o Kuki Airani i muri i te matenga o te kaituhi ake. Teeraa pea ko te mahi nanea katoa ki a ia i teenei waa, ko tana whakaoti i Nga iwi o Tainui moo ngaa koorero tuku iho a ngaa iwi o Tainui, i tiimata nei a Pei Jones ki te kohikohi i ngaa tau 1920. I whakapaakehaatia e Bruce ngeetehi koorero e 67 me ngaa waiata i kohia e Jones, me tana taapiri anoo i ngeetehi kupu eetita. I taaia te pukapuka i te tau 1995, ka whakawhiwhia ki te Tohu Hoonore i ngaa Tohu Pukapuka o Aotearoa a Montana i te tau 1996.

I uhia a Biggs ki oona anoo hoonore maatauranga, hoonore hapori. I tohua ia hei Paewai ki te Porihanga Roera o Aotearoa i te tau 1969. I tana huritau 60 ka tukua ki a ia teetehi kohinga koorero whakahoonore i a ia, i tuhia e ngeetehi kaiwetereo e 30 o te ao. Ko ia te Tumuaki o te Porihanga o Poronihia mai i te tau 1979 ki te 1993, i te  tau 1985 ka whakawhiwhia ia ki te Elsdon Best Memorial Medal a te Society. Ka tohua ia hei OBE moo ana ratonga ki te maatai i te ao Maaori me te wetereo i te 1985, ki te CBE anoo moo ana ratonga ki te ao maatauranga me te iwi Maaori i te tau 1995. I mate a Bruce Biggs ki Taamakimakaurau i te 18 o Oketopa i te tau 2000, e 79 oona tau. I taua waa e ora tonu ana tana wahine, a Joy (i mate i te tau 2014), ana tamariki tokowhaa, me ngaa mokopuna tokoiwa.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Andrew Pawley. 'Biggs, Bruce Grandison', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 2019. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/6b7/biggs-bruce-grandison (accessed 30 October 2020)