Kōrero: Ngā pakanga ki tāwāhi

Whārangi 4. Te Pakanga Tuarua: ngā mahi Māori mō te pakanga

Ngā whakaahua

Te Māori ki te pae o te riri

Ka whawhai tonu mātou tae noa ki te mutunga. Mō te Atua te kīngi me te motu! Ake, ake, kia kaha e!1

Whakaheke toto tonu te iwi Māori ki te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao. I te huakitanga o te riri ka tūao te tokomaha ki te Taua Tuarua o Aotearoa, ā, i te Hānuere o 1940 ka mawehe ki roto ki te Wāhanga Tuatahi (1st Echelon).

Puta noa i te riri, kapi katoa ngā taua mau pū o Aotearoa i te hōia Māori, ā, he maha noa atu i horapa ki ngā ratonga katoa. E rērere ana ngā Māori i ngā wakarererangi taua ki Uropi me te Rāwhiti Pāmamao.Ka hau te rongo mō Haihana Bert Wipiti mō te pupuhi i te wakarererangi pahū o Hapani i runga o Hingapoa i te tau 1941. Ko te wakarere pahū tuatahi tērā o Hapani i puhipuhia. Ko Āpiha Rere John Porokoru Pohe te kaihautū wakarererangi tuatahi kia tae ki Ingarangi whai muri i tana whakangungu ki te Kaupapa Whakangungu Hautū Wakarererangi. Ka urungi ia i ngā waka pahū ki runga o Tiamana tae noa ki tōna maunga atu. I whakamatea a Pohe i tōna hoputanga whai muri i te mawhititanga atu o ngā mauhere 76 i te ‘Putanga Nui’ mai i te whare herehere hōia o Stalag Luft III.

Ko te kōiti māreikura Māori anō tērā i haere ki tāwāhi ki roto i te Ratonga Tapuhi Hōia o Aotearoa, hei tūao āwhina rānei ki te Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC). Ko ngā taitama Māori ka riro atu ki te Taua Moana Roera o Aotearoa, me te Taua Rererangi Roera o Aotearoa. Heoi ko te nuinga o ngā tāhae ka riro ki te taua mau pū o te Ope Hōia Māori Rua Tekau Mā Waru.

Ngā tautiaki o te kāinga

I tua atu i ngā hōia o Te Ope Rua Tekau Mā Waru ko ngā pākeke Māori i tomo ki roto ki te ope kaitiaki i te hau kāinga. Nō Mei o te tau 1941 ka tīmata te whakauru i ngā Māori ki te Taua o ngā pia (territorials), ā, nā Tai Tokerau i whakaroherohe ō rātou ranga maro. Ka mutu nō te whakahahaka mai o Hapani i te Hānuere o 1942 ka pōhitia ngā hōia ki ngā teihana e pātata ana ki ō rātou kāinga. Inā anō te huhua o ngā hōia Māori i tū ki roto i te Taua Haukāinga. He taua eke hōiho hoki tō Ngāti Porou hei matapopore i te rohe o te Tai Rāwhiti.

Ngā whakapaunga kaha ki te kāinga

Kāore i ārikarika ngā whakapaunga kaha a te iwi kāinga ki te pakanga; ki te taka moni, ki te taka kai hoki. He ihu oneone hoki te Māori ki ngā wheketere, i tīmata ai te maunutanga nui i ngā papakāinga ki te tāone. Nō te marama o Hune i te tau 1942 ka whakatū te kāwanatanga i Ngā Mahi Māori mō te Whawhai ki raro i te awe o Paraire Paikea, te Minita Whakahaere i ngā Mahi Māori mō te Pakanga. Ka whakarohea te motu ki ngā kaupeka whakahaere 21, ā, e 315 ngā komiti i hangā hei taituarā i ngā mahi tūao, whakangao matua hoki, tae atu ki te whakariterite i ngā whakaheke tōtā a te Māori.

Te hunga wāhine Māori

He huarahi te pakanga i tuwhera ai ngā ahumahi pakanga ki ngā wahine Māori, i taea ai hoki tō rātou neke ki ngā taone mahi ai. Ko ētahi ka tautoko mā ngā mahi tūao, mā ngā mahi rapu pūtea, tae atu ki te tao kai me te tuitui kākahu mō ngā hōia. Ko te kawenga nui ko te tao kai mā te Ope Hōia Māori. Ka whakatakā mai ko ngā kai whakamaroke a te Māori, arā, te pipi, te pūpū, te karengo, te tuna, te mangō, te kōura, te kūmara me te hua karaka.

I noho tonu ngā whakamau a te Māori ki a Peretānia tae noa ki te tau 1939, heoi ka tāorotia atu ērā whakapae i runga i te tere aro a ngā iwi o te motu ki te pakanga. Ahakoa te pūmau o Te Puea me te Kīngitanga ki te whakahē i te pakanga i runga i ngā ito whenua raupatu, ka kaha tonu rātou ki te whakatipu kai, ki te manaaki taotū me te whakangungu i te taua tautiaki.

Ko tā te hunga tōrangapū pēnei me Ngata mā, me whai wāhi te Māori ki te whakatūnga o tēnei motu; ka mutu me korikori rawa te iwi Māori ki te tautoko i te pakanga. Ko tāna whakahau tēnei, ‘He whare kotahi te motu, ki te hinga te Pākehā me hinga tahi tātou. E pēhea ai a Ihu ina whiua te pātai, “I hea koe i te tangi o te riroriro?”’2

Kupu tāpiri
  1. ‘Māori Battalion,’ http://folksong.org.nz/maori_battalion/ (i tirohia i te 29 Pēpuere 2012). Back
  2. I takoto ki Monty Soutar, Ngā tama toa: The price of citizenship: C Company 28 (Māori) Battalion 1939–1945. Tāmaki-makaurau: David Bateman, 2008, wh. 35. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Monty Soutar, 'Ngā pakanga ki tāwāhi - Te Pakanga Tuarua: ngā mahi Māori mō te pakanga', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-pakanga-ki-tawahi/page-4 (accessed 19 June 2019)

Story by Monty Soutar, published 20 Jun 2012, updated 1 May 2016