Kōrero: Ngā pakanga ki tāwāhi

Whārangi 6. Ngā mahi ki tawhiti, mai i te tau 1945

Ngā whakaahua

Jayforce

He rite tonu te tikanga i whāia, arā, te whakatū peka Māori, ki roto ki te Jayforce. Ko te rōpū Māori ko te kaupeka D o te Matua Kaieke. He tūao katoa ngā mea i haere i Itari ki Hapani, ka mutu, i ahu mai i te Ope Rua Tekau Mā Waru. E rua ngā rangapū piki (he tūao katoa nō Aotearoa), ka whakakī i te whārua i ngā tau o 1946 me 1947. Ko tā rātou he unu haere i ngā kākahu o te riri ki Hapani. Ka mutu i hōpunitia rātou ki Yamaguchi, tūtata hoki ki Shimane kei te pito whakatetonga o Honshu.

Sam Rangiihu

I te tutūtanga o te puehu ki Korea, ka korikori ano te iwi Māori ki roto ki te Kayforce. I te tau 1953 ka tohua ko Rimu Hamiora Rangiihu hei minita mō te ope. He tangata mārohirohi a Rangiihu, he reo rōreka anō; ā, koia hoki e whakatika ana i ngā hōia Māori pupuhi pūrepo. Whai muri i te rongo taketake i te tau 1954 ka whakapau kaha ia ki te whakatū i te whare karakia o Hato Parapa ki te puni hōia o Kayforce a ‘Kiwi Hill’.

Kayforce

Nō te maunutanga nui atu o te Māori ki ngā taone whai muri i te Pakanga Tuarua ka hanumitia te Māori ki te ao Pākehā. I kitea hoki tēnei i te nui o te kanohi parauri ki roto i ngā ope taua, ā, ka toko anō te whakaaro me whakauru rawa tētahi ope Māori hei wāhanga motuhake ki roto ki te Kayforce (te ope taua o Aotearoa ki Korea). I te wā o te pakanga ka hua ake ngā kamupene pupuhi pū repo nā rātou anō i whakakao; pērā i ētahi rōpū mau pū o te Matua Whīra 16 me te Kamupene Kawe Hōia 10. Tērā hoki te iti matakahi i uru ki ngā taua moana ki Korea. I te tuatahi, e 7.5 ōrau te rahi o Ngāi Māori i roto o te ope taua Kayforce; nō muri mai kotahi tūao i roto i te tokowhā he Māori. I te mutunga o te pakanga, kotahi te hōia o ngā hōia tokowhitu he Māori (ahakoa e 6 ōrau noa iho te taupori Māori i tērā wā).

Te Tonga-mā-marangai o Āhia

I te whakarewanga o te ope taua maupū ki Mareia i te tau 1958 e 28 ōrau he hōia Māori. I te pakanga o Whitinamu atu i 1965 ki 1972, e 35 ōrau o te ope taua he Māori (e 8 ōrau te taupori Māori i tērā wā).

I te mātotoru o ngā hōia Māori o te ope taua ka kōhure ake ngā āhuatanga Māori ki roto ki te ope taua ki te kāinga ki te Tonga mā Marangai o Āhia hoki. Ko te haka, ko te karanga ko te wero ētahi o ngā tikanga a te Māori i whakaurua ki ngā mahi ōkawa o te ope taua. Nō te tau 1962 ka waihangatia te wharenui me te marae ki Terandak, Mareia. I hangā hoki te kapa haka o te marae mō ngā whakaritenga nui. I te tau 1978 ko te ika ā-whiro o te Jayforce, me ngā pakanga o Korea, Mareia me Ponio ko Meiha Tianara Brian Matauru Poananga. Ko ia te Māori tuatahi kia tohua hei tumu whakarae mō te rangapū matua.

Te ara whanaungatanga Māori i Whitinamu

I te pakanga o Whitinamu ka whawhai ngātahi hoki ngā Māori o tēnā iwi, ō tēnā rohe. Ko tōna hua ko te ohonga ake o te mauri Māori ki roto ki ngā hōia, reo Māori mai, kore reo Māori mai. Nō kona hoki ka tuitui ngā Māori i a rātou anō, e pūpū ai te noho ki roto ki te taua o V-Force.

Ngā nguha mai i te tau 1970

Mai i te Pakanga o Whitinamu, hau ana te rongo o te Māori ki ngā riri whakauaua. He wāhanga nui tō rātou ki ngā whakatūtū puehu ki Timoa Rāwhiti, ki Kuwait me Afghanistan. Ko te manukura pāraeroa ko Rūtene Tianara Jerry Matepārae te kaingārahu o te ope taua ki Bougainville me Timoa Rāwhiti, ā, taihoa ka tohua koia hei tumuaki mō te ope taua (i te tau 2006), ā, hei kāwana tianara i te tau 2011. Ko ranga maro Kāpara Willie Apiata o te SAS i tāpaea ki te Tohu Wikitōria mō tōna māia ki Afghanistan i te tau 2004.

He huarahi mahi te ope taua e puta ai te ihu o te waka o te tangata ki te ao. Kāti nā te haumi atu o ngā koroua ki ngā pakanga nui whakaharahara e rua o te ao i para te huarahi mō tuahangata me tuawahine kia whai i ngā mahi ope taua ki tua o te tau rua mano. Ahakoa te whakakorenga o ngā rangapū toa Māori, he ōrite tonu ngā kōingo ki ērā i kukume ai i ō rātou mātua tūpuna i ngā pakanga o mua.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Monty Soutar, 'Ngā pakanga ki tāwāhi - Ngā mahi ki tawhiti, mai i te tau 1945', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-pakanga-ki-tawahi/page-6 (accessed 25 March 2019)

Story by Monty Soutar, published 20 Jun 2012, updated 1 May 2016