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Ngā pakanga ki tāwāhi – Māori and overseas wars

by Monty Soutar

‘Ka whawhai tonu mātou, tae noa ki te mutunga. Mō te Atua, Te Kīngi, Me te Motu, Āke āke kia kaha e!’. He wāhanga tēnei nō te waiata i titoa hei whakakori i te Ope Rua Tekau Mā Waru toa, arā, te ope hōia Māori i kawe ā-riri ki ngā whenua o tawhiti. He ranga maro, he toa horopū taua.


Māori and the South African War

Ngā pakanga ki tāwāhi

Kapi katoa i te Māori ngā matawhaura nui taioreore o te ao. Nō te pakūtanga o te pū ka whāia ngā rongo mai i te pakanga, ā, ka whakaara ngā kaumātua i te hunga tamariki kia kori, kia kōrero mō ngā rongo pakanga. Ka tautohe ki runga marae ngā ito o ngā pakanga me te wetewete i ngā take i piripono ai rātou ki te Emepaea o Peretānia. Ka mutu ehara i te mea ohorere ka aronuitia ngā kakari ki Āwherika ki te Tonga, ki Uropi me te Tonga mā Marangai o Āhia. I ngākaunui ētahi o te iwi Māori ki te whai atu.

Ngā urupare ki te Pakanga ki Āwherika ki te Tonga

Tena ra e tama ma e! E tapa i o koutou ingoa!1

Ka whawhai mō ake tonu

Ko Walter Callaway o Hauraki te tūao tuatahi i te pakanga ki Āwherika ki te Tonga. Tokotoru ngā ope taua ka uru atu ia; ā, he āpiha hoki i whakahuatia tōna ingoa i ngā tuku kōrero hautoa. Nāna hoki te akiaki ki te hunga hōia, ‘Kia kaha Niu Tireni! Whawhai maia mo to Kuini, to kainga! Ake! Ake! Ake!’2

Nō te Oketopa o te tau 1899 ka toro mai te Riri Poa. I te takatūtanga ki te pakanga ka mene ētahi iwi ki te Emepaea o Peretānia, mā roto tonu i te Ope Tūao.

He maha tonu ngā rangatira i tono kia taki i ō rātou hapū ki te māra o te pakanga ki Āwherika ki te Tonga. I te matenga o te tama a Rore Roberts, ka tuku te rangatira o Ngāti Porou a Tuta Nihoniho i te mere pounamu a ōna tīpuna, me te kī tērā hoki e tukua atu ngā hōia rima rau. Ko Roberts te kaingārahu o ngā hōia o Peretānia ki Āwherika ki te Tonga. Ko tā Nihoniho kia tukua te rima rau ki ngā rekereke a Rore Roberts, kia tukua rānei rātou hei hoa matenga mō te tama a Rore Roberts.3

I whakahētia te urunga o ngā iwi i kīa rā he iwi kara, ki te pakanga. Ko te ture e kore ngā iwi taketake e whai wāhi ki ngā pakanga a te Pākehā; aua atu tēnei. Ka whakapura te ture, e rua tekau neke atu rānei ngā Māori ka whai wāhi atu ki raro ingoa Pākehā hou; pērā i a Arthur (Aaata) Boyd, i a Callaway (Karawe), i a Ferris (Wherihi), i a Joseph (Hohepa), i a Pitt (Piti, Poynter, i a Thorpe (Taapu), i a Vercoe (Wēko), i a Walker (Waaka) me Withers. Ka tautokona e ngā niupepa Māori ā rātou mahi tae atu hoki ki te pakanga.

Ngā tāpuhi o Ngāpuhi

I te tau 1901 ka hangā te tira kahurangi o Ngāpuhi i mōhiotia ai ko Ngāpuhi Sisters of Mercy. I whakangungu rātou ki te taha hauora, ā, rapu moni ai rātou mō ngā hōia ki te Riri Poa. He eke hoiho rātou, i taea ai ngā whaitua o Whangarei, he whakaora tūroro te mahi. He mea tauira ō rātou pūeru i ērā o ngā Tūao Kaieke o Aotearoa ki Āwherika.

Ngā kaitautoko Poa me ngā kaiāki ā-motu

He maha tonu ngā Māori i tautoko ki ngā Poa me te whakapae ko te Pākehā tonu e kaiā whenua ana. Ki tā ētahi nā ngā pirihi Tiamana ngā Māori i whakakīkī hei tauwehewehe mō ngā whenua raupatu te take.

Heoi ka nanaiore tonu ētahi iwi ki te mahi pūtea mō ngā hōia ki tāwāhi me ngā whānau o ngā hōia kua mate, kua taotū. Kātahi ka titoa mai ngā waiata me ngā haka hei hiki ake i te wairua o te iwi. Ko tētahi haka rongonui i titoa ko ‘Kikia te Poa’.

Footnotes
  1. Pipiwharauroa: he kupu whakamarama, 1 Āperira 1900, wh. 5. Back
  2. Mike Dwight, Walter Callaway: a Māori warrior of the Boer War. Thames: M. Dwight, 2010, wh. 33. Back
  3. Manawatu Standard, 31 Poutū-te-rangi 1900, wh. 4. Back

Māori and the First World War

Ngā whakaika Māori

E te iwi, whītiki! Whiti! Whiti e!1

Te Rōpū Rangatahi me te Pakanga

Ko te pōkaitara o Te Rōpū Rangatahi Māori, he tauira nō tau kē i Te Aute Kāreti. Atu i tō rātou whakapau kaha ki te oranga Māori ka ngana kia whakatahuri i te Māori ki te ao Pākehā. Ka mutu nō te wā o te pakanga ka noho ōna kaiārahi a Āpirana Ngata me Māui Pōmare hei Mema Pāremata, ā, ka whai wāhi rāua ki te Komiti Whakatari Hōia Māori. Ko tō rātou hoa Mema Pāremata (he rata hoki) ko Te Rangi Hīroa i uru ki te Hokowhitu a Tūmatauenga ki te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao. I tū ia ki ngā kakari ki Karipori, ki Wīwī, ki Belgium, ā, ka whakawhiwhia ia ki te tohu toa DSO.

I te tuwheratanga o te riri nui o te ao ka ara ngā iwi. E 500 tōpū te Hokowhitu Māori ka whakaaetia e te kāwanatanga o Peretānia, arā, kāore i pērā te whakore o te Māori me te Pakanga i Āwherika ki te Tonga. E 2,500 ngā Maori i tū ki tāwāhi, ā, ka ū te mātotoru o te taupori Māori ki te pakanga. He rerekē te mōrahi o ngā ika i tono mai i tēnā wāhi i tēnā wāhi, ā, hei ētahi hapori he nui ngā hōia kaingākau i puta mai, hei ētahi kore kau. He whakaatu tēnei i ngā whakawhiu rerekē i pā ki ngā iwi i ngā pakanga whenua o Aotearoa i te rautau 1800. Ka mutu ko ngā iwi kūpapa ka tautoko. Ko ngā iwi whakakeke i riro ai ō rātou whenua, kāore i haumi nui atu ki tērā pakanga.

Ka ūhia te wairua hautoa o ngā mātua tīpuna ki runga ki ngā torekaihuruhuru. Ko te nuinga i ahu mai i ngā iwi i rongo i ngā painga o te ao Pākehā. Ka mutu ko Ngāpuhi, me ētahi iwi o te Tai Tokerau tērā; ko Ngāti Kahungunu me Ngāti Porou i te Tai Rāwhiti tērā; ko Te Arawa tērā ki Te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi. Ka akiaki ngā kaumātua i te hunga rangatahi, kia tuku i a rātou i runga i te oati a ō rātou tīpuna ki te Tiriti o Waitangi.

He tapuhi o te pōkai 50

I te tau 1915 ko Ethel Watkins Taylor o Ngāpuhi tētahi o te rima tekau tuatahi i tūao ki te Ratonga Tapuhi o te Ope Taua o Aotearoa. He tapuhi a Taylor ki Alexandria Īhipa. Nāwai ka tae atu ia ki Karipori; he whakaora tūroro me ngā taotū te mahi. Whakapau ngākau rawa a ia puta noa i te pakanga, whai muri iho ki ngā kaipuke hōhipera me ngā hōhipera taua ki Ingarangi.

Te Māperetanga

I te tau 1916 ka whakahautia te māperetanga ki ngā hunga tāne Pākehā hei pupuri i te aro ā-kapa ki tāwāhi. Mea rawa ake ka tau ki runga ki a Waikato me Ngāti Maniapoto (ngā whakarohenga Kōti Whenua Māori) i te kore o rātou e aro kia tuku ika mō te pakanga. Me te aha ka whakahē mārika ēnei iwi ki te whawhai mō te iwi nāna ōna tīpuna i patu, nāna hoki ōna mano whenua i whānako. Ka ātetetia hoki te māperetanga e te Kīngitanga, me te tohetohe ake a Kīngi Te Rata rāua ko Te Pūea ki ōna āhuatanga..

Kaiha Māori?

Ko Tūhoe tonu tētahi iwi i tōkia ki te anumātao o ngā riri whenua i te tekau tau 1860. Nō te tau 1907 ka waihangatia e Te Rua te kāinga ki Maungapōhatu i roto i te nehenehenui o Te Urewera. I te takatūtanga o te pakanga ka akiakitia ngā tāhae kia kaua e tūao atu ki te ope taua. He pōhēhē hoki nō te hunga Pākehā he kaitautoko a ia nō ngā Tiamana, ka karangatia ia ko te ‘Māori Kaiser’. Nā whai anō, i te Āperira o te tau 1916 ka tonoa ngā pirihimana mau pū e 67 te rahi ki Maungapōhatu ki te mauhere i a Te Rua, mō te hoko waipiro. Ka pakū ngā pū, ā, ka hora te ika huirua,ko tana tama, rāua ko tētahi o ana pāpara.

Nō te tau 1919, e 74 ngā kaimāpere Māori o te hunga 552 i karangatia mai; e 111 ka mauheretia mō te whakahē ki te māperetanga, ā, 100 ka whakahautia ki te wārani mauhere. Tae rawa ki te mutunga o te pakanga kore rawa tētahi o ngā māperetanga Māori i tukuna ki te mura o te ahi.

Footnotes
  1. I takoto ki Christopher Pugsley, Te Hokowhitu a Tu: the Maori Pioneer Battalion in the First World War. Tāmaki-makaurau: Reed, 1995, wh. 15 me 23. Back

Māori contingent in the First World War

Te ope Taua Māori ki Karipori

Ko te Ope Hōia Māori (Native Contingent) te ope Māori tuatahi o te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao. Ko ngā tūranga āpiha o raro (junior) he Māori, ko ngā tūranga āpiha matua he Pākehā. Whai muri i ngā parawhakawai ki te papa reihi hōiho o Avondale ki Ākarana ka tukuna atu te matua ki Īhipa i te marama o Pēpuere i te tau 1915.

Te haka ki Karipori

Ka whakamārama te kaituhi a James Cowan mō te kōkiri a ngā Māori i te karahiwi o Table Top ki te riri tāngutungutu o Karipori: ‘Ka kōkiri tonu atu te Māori, ā, ka huakina te hoariri ki te mata o te pēneti. Ka riri whakauauatia ngā Korukoru i reira, ā, nō te whatinga o ngā rārangi aro ā-kapa o te hoariri ka rangona te paoro o te haka i ngā maioro i tahia atu e rātou – “Ka mate ka mate, ka ora, ka ora!” – ka mahue kau anake te mapu i te whanaketanga atu ki ngā wharekura o te riri.’1

Ka maharatia he taua kaitiaki (mō te mahi wawao) noa iho te ope taua Māori, ā, ka whakanōhia te ope taua ki Mārata i te wā o ngā ūnga ki te kokoru o Anzac kei te kūrae o Karipori. Heoi nō te aituātanga o te ope matua ki Karipori ka tonoa te wāhanga Māori ki te kokoru o Anzac i te marama o Hūrae. I mua i te pakanga, 16 ōna āpiha, 461 ōna hōia; taka rawa ki te Hepetema o taua tau, 60 noa iho ngā mōrehu e toitū ana ki te kūrae o Karipori. I te tauitanga o te ope ANZAC i te marama o Tīhema, e rua noa iho ōna āpiha, 132 ngā hōia. Nō te hokinga mai o ētahi o ngā taotū ka pupū anō ngā rārangi.

He kanohi kitea te ope taua mai anō i te huakitanga o te riri ki Karipori. Ko te tokomaha he tūao i kawe ā-riri ki waenganui i ngā ope mau pū ā-rohe. Ko Wātene Moeke (he hōia nō te Regiment o Ākarana) te mātāika o te pakanga, i mate mai i ngā whakapaenga atu i te rā 25 o Āperira. I tū ētahi Māori ki te Ope Taua o Ahitereiria me te tokoiti ki roto ki te Taua o Peretānia.

Te Hokowhitu a Tū

Whai muri i te kakari ki Karipori ka hanumi te Ope Māori ki ngā mōrehu o Te Taua Hōiho o Ōtākou, ka whakawhāititia ō rātou kawenga ki te kari maioro, te hanga rori me ngā mahi ki ngā rārangi aroaro. I runga anō i te pōhēhē ka tokoiti iho ōna aituā, ka hinga nui atu te ope ki Wīwī i te pīkau haere i ērā o ngā hōia ki te mura o te ahi. Atu i te takiwā tōmua o te tau 1916 ka whakakīa te taua Māori ki ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, arā, o Rarotonga, o Tonga, o Niue me Hāmoa. Ka mutu, nō te Ākuhata o te tau 1917 kua rite te rahi o ngā hōia Māori hei whakakī i ngā whārua o te hokowhitu, ā, ka tapā anō te taua ko Te Hokowhitu a Tūmatauenga, me tōna waitohu ake i whakahokia ki a ia.

Te Rīpeka Wikitōria Māori tuatahi

Ko Rūtene Tuarua William Rhodes-Moorhouse te hōia Māori tuatahi kia whiwhi i te Tohu Wikitōria. Ahakoa tōna whānau mai ki roto ki tētahi whānau Pākehā whai rawa, nō Ngāti Ruanui anō a ia, ka mutu hei mokopuna ia mā William Barnard Rhodes, he tangata whai nō Pōneke, rāua ko Ōtāhui o Ngāti Ruanui. I tau te tohu ki runga i a ia i te kōkiri pahū o te rerewe o Courtai ki Peretimi i te Āperira o te tau 1915. I mate ia i te nui o ōna taotū i te kōkiritanga atu.

Te mutunga o te riri

I te hōhoutanga o te rongo e ahu ana te hokowhitu ki ngā ripa tauārai o Tiamana kia noho puni ki te Rhine engari ka whakahē ngā Pākehā o Ingarangi i te tukunga i te taua tangata whenua ki Tiamani. Ahakoa te whakatakariri ki tēnei pōhēhē, ko te nuinga i koakoa kia waihape ki te kāinga. Ā, nō te Poutūterangi o 1919 ka tere te hokowhitu ki te wā kāinga mā runga i te kaipuke o Westmoreland.

Hurō ana te marea i te hokinga o te Hokowhitu a Tūmatauenga ki te whenua taurikura, ka mutu, ka tākaro te tīma whutupōro o te hokowhitu ki ngā moka o Aotearoa.

E 2,500 ngā toa i tū ki tāwāhi, ā, 470 nō ngā iwi o ngā moutere o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. E 336 ōna mate, neke atu i te 700 ōna taotū.

Footnotes
  1. James Cowan, The Maoris in the Great War: a history of the New Zealand Native Contingent and Pioneer Battalion: Gallipoli 1915, France and Flanders 1916–1918. Tāmaki-makaurau: Maori Regimental Committee, 1926, wh. 39. Back

Second World War: the Māori war effort

Te Māori ki te pae o te riri

Ka whawhai tonu mātou tae noa ki te mutunga. Mō te Atua te kīngi me te motu! Ake, ake, kia kaha e!1

Whakaheke toto tonu te iwi Māori ki te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao. I te huakitanga o te riri ka tūao te tokomaha ki te Taua Tuarua o Aotearoa, ā, i te Hānuere o 1940 ka mawehe ki roto ki te Wāhanga Tuatahi (1st Echelon).

Puta noa i te riri, kapi katoa ngā taua mau pū o Aotearoa i te hōia Māori, ā, he maha noa atu i horapa ki ngā ratonga katoa. E rērere ana ngā Māori i ngā wakarererangi taua ki Uropi me te Rāwhiti Pāmamao.Ka hau te rongo mō Haihana Bert Wipiti mō te pupuhi i te wakarererangi pahū o Hapani i runga o Hingapoa i te tau 1941. Ko te wakarere pahū tuatahi tērā o Hapani i puhipuhia. Ko Āpiha Rere John Porokoru Pohe te kaihautū wakarererangi tuatahi kia tae ki Ingarangi whai muri i tana whakangungu ki te Kaupapa Whakangungu Hautū Wakarererangi. Ka urungi ia i ngā waka pahū ki runga o Tiamana tae noa ki tōna maunga atu. I whakamatea a Pohe i tōna hoputanga whai muri i te mawhititanga atu o ngā mauhere 76 i te ‘Putanga Nui’ mai i te whare herehere hōia o Stalag Luft III.

Ko te kōiti māreikura Māori anō tērā i haere ki tāwāhi ki roto i te Ratonga Tapuhi Hōia o Aotearoa, hei tūao āwhina rānei ki te Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC). Ko ngā taitama Māori ka riro atu ki te Taua Moana Roera o Aotearoa, me te Taua Rererangi Roera o Aotearoa. Heoi ko te nuinga o ngā tāhae ka riro ki te taua mau pū o te Ope Hōia Māori Rua Tekau Mā Waru.

Ngā tautiaki o te kāinga

I tua atu i ngā hōia o Te Ope Rua Tekau Mā Waru ko ngā pākeke Māori i tomo ki roto ki te ope kaitiaki i te hau kāinga. Nō Mei o te tau 1941 ka tīmata te whakauru i ngā Māori ki te Taua o ngā pia (territorials), ā, nā Tai Tokerau i whakaroherohe ō rātou ranga maro. Ka mutu nō te whakahahaka mai o Hapani i te Hānuere o 1942 ka pōhitia ngā hōia ki ngā teihana e pātata ana ki ō rātou kāinga. Inā anō te huhua o ngā hōia Māori i tū ki roto i te Taua Haukāinga. He taua eke hōiho hoki tō Ngāti Porou hei matapopore i te rohe o te Tai Rāwhiti.

Ngā whakapaunga kaha ki te kāinga

Kāore i ārikarika ngā whakapaunga kaha a te iwi kāinga ki te pakanga; ki te taka moni, ki te taka kai hoki. He ihu oneone hoki te Māori ki ngā wheketere, i tīmata ai te maunutanga nui i ngā papakāinga ki te tāone. Nō te marama o Hune i te tau 1942 ka whakatū te kāwanatanga i Ngā Mahi Māori mō te Whawhai ki raro i te awe o Paraire Paikea, te Minita Whakahaere i ngā Mahi Māori mō te Pakanga. Ka whakarohea te motu ki ngā kaupeka whakahaere 21, ā, e 315 ngā komiti i hangā hei taituarā i ngā mahi tūao, whakangao matua hoki, tae atu ki te whakariterite i ngā whakaheke tōtā a te Māori.

Te hunga wāhine Māori

He huarahi te pakanga i tuwhera ai ngā ahumahi pakanga ki ngā wahine Māori, i taea ai hoki tō rātou neke ki ngā taone mahi ai. Ko ētahi ka tautoko mā ngā mahi tūao, mā ngā mahi rapu pūtea, tae atu ki te tao kai me te tuitui kākahu mō ngā hōia. Ko te kawenga nui ko te tao kai mā te Ope Hōia Māori. Ka whakatakā mai ko ngā kai whakamaroke a te Māori, arā, te pipi, te pūpū, te karengo, te tuna, te mangō, te kōura, te kūmara me te hua karaka.

I noho tonu ngā whakamau a te Māori ki a Peretānia tae noa ki te tau 1939, heoi ka tāorotia atu ērā whakapae i runga i te tere aro a ngā iwi o te motu ki te pakanga. Ahakoa te pūmau o Te Puea me te Kīngitanga ki te whakahē i te pakanga i runga i ngā ito whenua raupatu, ka kaha tonu rātou ki te whakatipu kai, ki te manaaki taotū me te whakangungu i te taua tautiaki.

Ko tā te hunga tōrangapū pēnei me Ngata mā, me whai wāhi te Māori ki te whakatūnga o tēnei motu; ka mutu me korikori rawa te iwi Māori ki te tautoko i te pakanga. Ko tāna whakahau tēnei, ‘He whare kotahi te motu, ki te hinga te Pākehā me hinga tahi tātou. E pēhea ai a Ihu ina whiua te pātai, “I hea koe i te tangi o te riroriro?”’2

Footnotes
  1. ‘Māori Battalion,’ http://folksong.org.nz/maori_battalion/ (i tirohia i te 29 Pēpuere 2012). Back
  2. I takoto ki Monty Soutar, Ngā tama toa: The price of citizenship: C Company 28 (Māori) Battalion 1939–1945. Tāmaki-makaurau: David Bateman, 2008, wh. 35. Back

The 28th (Māori) Battalion

Te whakaara taua

Nō te marama o Oketopa 1939 ka whakamanatia e te kāwanatanga te whakaaro kia tū te Ope Hōia Rua Tekau Mā Waru Māori. He rikarika tonu te Māori kia kitea tōna taurite ki te Pākehā, kia whiwhi hoki ki ngā mōtika tangata ōrite. I tērā wā hoki e noho taurekareka ana te Māori ki te Pākehā.

He mea whakarōpū ā-iwi te ope taua Māori, ā, i riro nā ngā rangatira o ngā iwi i hautū tēnā wāhanga, tēnā wāhanga. Ko George Dittmer te kaingārahu tuatahi o te taua, ka mutu he Pākehā matatau ki ngā rautaki pakanga, he mōrehu hoki nō te Pakanga Tuatahi. Kawa tonu atu ētahi i te whakawhiwhinga o te kaiārahitanga ki te Pākehā, engari nā tōna mārō, me tōna tohunga ki ngā whakatakataka a te taua, ka warea tēnei. Nāwai i te muranga o te riri pūwherowhero, ko ōna piki tūranga ko ngā Rūtene Kānara Māori ko Tiwi Love rātou ko Fred Baker, ko Charles Bennett, ko Reta Keiha, ko Arapeta Awatere, ko James Hēnare.

E toru marama e whakangungua ana te ope taua ki te parikarauna o te Papaiōea. Ā, nō te marama o Mei i te tau 1940, ka mahuta atu te taua e 780 tōpū ki Īhipa, hei wāhanga hoki mō te Ope Taua Tuarua o Aotearoa. Whai atu i a rātou ko ngā tira 12 tōpū hei whakakī i ngā whāwhārua. Ka whakaekea a Peretānia, ā, ka mauria te ope taua hei pā tūwatawata ki Ingarangi.

Ake, ake, kia kaha e!

Kāore i roa ka rongonui te ngaringari o te Ope Taua Māori ki ngā minenga o te ao, Pākehā mai, Māori mai hoki. Nā Anania Te Amohau o Te Arawa i tito, ā, ko te rangi i ahu mai i tētahi whare takiura i Amerika, arā, i te waiata te ‘Washington and Lee Swing’. Taro kau ake i tōna titonga i roto o Te Arawa ka waiata whānuitia e te ope taua.

Te kōkiri ki Kiriti, Kirihi me te Raki o Āwherika

I te tau 1941 ka tukuna te ope taua ki te raki o Āwherika ki Īhipa i mua i tōna tomokanga ki te mura o te ahi, arā, ki te tautiaki i a Kirihi. Whai muri i tōna whakapurunga ki te kūiti Olympus, ka manu kāwhaki te ope taua ki te motu o Kiriti. Nō konei ka mōhiotia te hautoa o te hokowhitu Māori, kia āpiti tūtia te hoariri.

Ka mārō tonu te kuratōpuni ki ngā hūneinei ki te Raki o Āwherika i ngā tau o 1941 ki 1943, ā, ka riri haere mai ki Sollum me Gazala ki Ripia, ki te whatinga mai i Minqar Qaim i Īhipa me te Riri ki Arameina. Ahakoa ngā tāiro ka pāhorotia e rātou ngā tohu whenua nui o Tebaga Gap me Takrouna ki Tūnihia. Nō te pakanga o Tebaga Gap ka tāpaea te Tohu Wikitōria ki te tipua nei ki a Rūtene Tuarua Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. I ōna parekura katoa ka kitea te hautoa o te ope taua; e 270 o rātou i mate, e 815 i taotū. O ngā amorangi tokowhitu, tokorua i patua, tokotoru i whara.

Ngā kūraku mō te Tohu Wikitōria

I te Āperira o te tau 1943 ka tonoa a Haihana Haane Te Rauawa Mānahi me te iti matakahi kia pikitia te tihi o Takrouna. I tōna māia ka tūtohua a Mānahi mō te Tohu Wikitōria engari ka whakahekea ki te tohu mētara DCM. Ka mate mai a Mānahi i te tau 1986, heoi, i te tau 2005 ka whakatuwheratia anō te kēhi e tōna rahi o Te Arawa me te RSA, kia whakawhiwhia ia ki te Tohu Wikitōria. Nō te marama o Māehe o te tau 2007 rā anō kātahi ka whakahōnoretia a Mānahi, arā, i te horanga a Pirini Andrew i te pūeru tūāhu, i te hoari, me tētahi reta mai i te Kuini.

Ngā whawhai ki Itari, 1943–45

Ka ohooho te mauri ki ngā kōkiringa tuatahi ki Itari. I te Tīhema o te tau 1943 ka parea te whakaekenga i Orsogna, ā, 50 i aituātia. I te Pēpuere o te tau 1944, ka parekuratia ngā kamupene e rua i te whakaekenga o te teihana rerewe o Cassino. O nga hōia 200, 128 ka whakamatea, ka taotū, ka mauheretia rānei. I muri mai ko te whana tuku ki roto o Florence, ā, ka whawhai haere ki Faenza tae noa ki te Tīhema i mua i te putanga o te ihu ki Trieste. Atu i te rangapū 270 te nui i tukuna ki Hapani ka hoki mai te tira kāewa ki te wā kāinga i te Hānuere o te tau 1946.

Te hautoa o te taua Māori

Kō atu i te 15,744 ngā Māori i tūao atu ki te ope taua, i tū whakaawe ai ki tāwāhi, ki te kāinga hoki. E 100,000 noa iho te taupori Māori i tērā wā. He tūao katoa ngā toa e 3,600 i tū ki roto ki te Ope Taua Māori. E 2,628 (649 i mate, 1,712 i taotū, 267 i mauheretia, i ngaro atu rānei), neke atu i te 50 ōrau te nui atu i te tauira ā-motu. E 99 ngā mētara i tāpaea ki te pātariana, ā, ko rātou te rōpū he maha rawa ōna mētara, o ngā taua mau pū o Aotearoa.


Overseas service after 1945

Jayforce

He rite tonu te tikanga i whāia, arā, te whakatū peka Māori, ki roto ki te Jayforce. Ko te rōpū Māori ko te kaupeka D o te Matua Kaieke. He tūao katoa ngā mea i haere i Itari ki Hapani, ka mutu, i ahu mai i te Ope Rua Tekau Mā Waru. E rua ngā rangapū piki (he tūao katoa nō Aotearoa), ka whakakī i te whārua i ngā tau o 1946 me 1947. Ko tā rātou he unu haere i ngā kākahu o te riri ki Hapani. Ka mutu i hōpunitia rātou ki Yamaguchi, tūtata hoki ki Shimane kei te pito whakatetonga o Honshu.

Sam Rangiihu

I te tutūtanga o te puehu ki Korea, ka korikori ano te iwi Māori ki roto ki te Kayforce. I te tau 1953 ka tohua ko Rimu Hamiora Rangiihu hei minita mō te ope. He tangata mārohirohi a Rangiihu, he reo rōreka anō; ā, koia hoki e whakatika ana i ngā hōia Māori pupuhi pūrepo. Whai muri i te rongo taketake i te tau 1954 ka whakapau kaha ia ki te whakatū i te whare karakia o Hato Parapa ki te puni hōia o Kayforce a ‘Kiwi Hill’.

Kayforce

Nō te maunutanga nui atu o te Māori ki ngā taone whai muri i te Pakanga Tuarua ka hanumitia te Māori ki te ao Pākehā. I kitea hoki tēnei i te nui o te kanohi parauri ki roto i ngā ope taua, ā, ka toko anō te whakaaro me whakauru rawa tētahi ope Māori hei wāhanga motuhake ki roto ki te Kayforce (te ope taua o Aotearoa ki Korea). I te wā o te pakanga ka hua ake ngā kamupene pupuhi pū repo nā rātou anō i whakakao; pērā i ētahi rōpū mau pū o te Matua Whīra 16 me te Kamupene Kawe Hōia 10. Tērā hoki te iti matakahi i uru ki ngā taua moana ki Korea. I te tuatahi, e 7.5 ōrau te rahi o Ngāi Māori i roto o te ope taua Kayforce; nō muri mai kotahi tūao i roto i te tokowhā he Māori. I te mutunga o te pakanga, kotahi te hōia o ngā hōia tokowhitu he Māori (ahakoa e 6 ōrau noa iho te taupori Māori i tērā wā).

Te Tonga-mā-marangai o Āhia

I te whakarewanga o te ope taua maupū ki Mareia i te tau 1958 e 28 ōrau he hōia Māori. I te pakanga o Whitinamu atu i 1965 ki 1972, e 35 ōrau o te ope taua he Māori (e 8 ōrau te taupori Māori i tērā wā).

I te mātotoru o ngā hōia Māori o te ope taua ka kōhure ake ngā āhuatanga Māori ki roto ki te ope taua ki te kāinga ki te Tonga mā Marangai o Āhia hoki. Ko te haka, ko te karanga ko te wero ētahi o ngā tikanga a te Māori i whakaurua ki ngā mahi ōkawa o te ope taua. Nō te tau 1962 ka waihangatia te wharenui me te marae ki Terandak, Mareia. I hangā hoki te kapa haka o te marae mō ngā whakaritenga nui. I te tau 1978 ko te ika ā-whiro o te Jayforce, me ngā pakanga o Korea, Mareia me Ponio ko Meiha Tianara Brian Matauru Poananga. Ko ia te Māori tuatahi kia tohua hei tumu whakarae mō te rangapū matua.

Te ara whanaungatanga Māori i Whitinamu

I te pakanga o Whitinamu ka whawhai ngātahi hoki ngā Māori o tēnā iwi, ō tēnā rohe. Ko tōna hua ko te ohonga ake o te mauri Māori ki roto ki ngā hōia, reo Māori mai, kore reo Māori mai. Nō kona hoki ka tuitui ngā Māori i a rātou anō, e pūpū ai te noho ki roto ki te taua o V-Force.

Ngā nguha mai i te tau 1970

Mai i te Pakanga o Whitinamu, hau ana te rongo o te Māori ki ngā riri whakauaua. He wāhanga nui tō rātou ki ngā whakatūtū puehu ki Timoa Rāwhiti, ki Kuwait me Afghanistan. Ko te manukura pāraeroa ko Rūtene Tianara Jerry Matepārae te kaingārahu o te ope taua ki Bougainville me Timoa Rāwhiti, ā, taihoa ka tohua koia hei tumuaki mō te ope taua (i te tau 2006), ā, hei kāwana tianara i te tau 2011. Ko ranga maro Kāpara Willie Apiata o te SAS i tāpaea ki te Tohu Wikitōria mō tōna māia ki Afghanistan i te tau 2004.

He huarahi mahi te ope taua e puta ai te ihu o te waka o te tangata ki te ao. Kāti nā te haumi atu o ngā koroua ki ngā pakanga nui whakaharahara e rua o te ao i para te huarahi mō tuahangata me tuawahine kia whai i ngā mahi ope taua ki tua o te tau rua mano. Ahakoa te whakakorenga o ngā rangapū toa Māori, he ōrite tonu ngā kōingo ki ērā i kukume ai i ō rātou mātua tūpuna i ngā pakanga o mua.


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How to cite this page: Monty Soutar, 'Ngā pakanga ki tāwāhi', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-pakanga-ki-tawahi/print (accessed 22 April 2019)

Story by Monty Soutar, published 20 Jun 2012, updated 1 May 2016