Kōrero: Ngā pakanga ki tāwāhi

Whārangi 3. Te Hokowhitu a Tū Toa ki te Pakanga Tuatahi

Ngā whakaahua

Te ope Taua Māori ki Karipori

Ko te Ope Hōia Māori (Native Contingent) te ope Māori tuatahi o te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao. Ko ngā tūranga āpiha o raro (junior) he Māori, ko ngā tūranga āpiha matua he Pākehā. Whai muri i ngā parawhakawai ki te papa reihi hōiho o Avondale ki Ākarana ka tukuna atu te matua ki Īhipa i te marama o Pēpuere i te tau 1915.

Te haka ki Karipori

Ka whakamārama te kaituhi a James Cowan mō te kōkiri a ngā Māori i te karahiwi o Table Top ki te riri tāngutungutu o Karipori: ‘Ka kōkiri tonu atu te Māori, ā, ka huakina te hoariri ki te mata o te pēneti. Ka riri whakauauatia ngā Korukoru i reira, ā, nō te whatinga o ngā rārangi aro ā-kapa o te hoariri ka rangona te paoro o te haka i ngā maioro i tahia atu e rātou – “Ka mate ka mate, ka ora, ka ora!” – ka mahue kau anake te mapu i te whanaketanga atu ki ngā wharekura o te riri.’1

Ka maharatia he taua kaitiaki (mō te mahi wawao) noa iho te ope taua Māori, ā, ka whakanōhia te ope taua ki Mārata i te wā o ngā ūnga ki te kokoru o Anzac kei te kūrae o Karipori. Heoi nō te aituātanga o te ope matua ki Karipori ka tonoa te wāhanga Māori ki te kokoru o Anzac i te marama o Hūrae. I mua i te pakanga, 16 ōna āpiha, 461 ōna hōia; taka rawa ki te Hepetema o taua tau, 60 noa iho ngā mōrehu e toitū ana ki te kūrae o Karipori. I te tauitanga o te ope ANZAC i te marama o Tīhema, e rua noa iho ōna āpiha, 132 ngā hōia. Nō te hokinga mai o ētahi o ngā taotū ka pupū anō ngā rārangi.

He kanohi kitea te ope taua mai anō i te huakitanga o te riri ki Karipori. Ko te tokomaha he tūao i kawe ā-riri ki waenganui i ngā ope mau pū ā-rohe. Ko Wātene Moeke (he hōia nō te Regiment o Ākarana) te mātāika o te pakanga, i mate mai i ngā whakapaenga atu i te rā 25 o Āperira. I tū ētahi Māori ki te Ope Taua o Ahitereiria me te tokoiti ki roto ki te Taua o Peretānia.

Te Hokowhitu a Tū

Whai muri i te kakari ki Karipori ka hanumi te Ope Māori ki ngā mōrehu o Te Taua Hōiho o Ōtākou, ka whakawhāititia ō rātou kawenga ki te kari maioro, te hanga rori me ngā mahi ki ngā rārangi aroaro. I runga anō i te pōhēhē ka tokoiti iho ōna aituā, ka hinga nui atu te ope ki Wīwī i te pīkau haere i ērā o ngā hōia ki te mura o te ahi. Atu i te takiwā tōmua o te tau 1916 ka whakakīa te taua Māori ki ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, arā, o Rarotonga, o Tonga, o Niue me Hāmoa. Ka mutu, nō te Ākuhata o te tau 1917 kua rite te rahi o ngā hōia Māori hei whakakī i ngā whārua o te hokowhitu, ā, ka tapā anō te taua ko Te Hokowhitu a Tūmatauenga, me tōna waitohu ake i whakahokia ki a ia.

Te Rīpeka Wikitōria Māori tuatahi

Ko Rūtene Tuarua William Rhodes-Moorhouse te hōia Māori tuatahi kia whiwhi i te Tohu Wikitōria. Ahakoa tōna whānau mai ki roto ki tētahi whānau Pākehā whai rawa, nō Ngāti Ruanui anō a ia, ka mutu hei mokopuna ia mā William Barnard Rhodes, he tangata whai nō Pōneke, rāua ko Ōtāhui o Ngāti Ruanui. I tau te tohu ki runga i a ia i te kōkiri pahū o te rerewe o Courtai ki Peretimi i te Āperira o te tau 1915. I mate ia i te nui o ōna taotū i te kōkiritanga atu.

Te mutunga o te riri

I te hōhoutanga o te rongo e ahu ana te hokowhitu ki ngā ripa tauārai o Tiamana kia noho puni ki te Rhine engari ka whakahē ngā Pākehā o Ingarangi i te tukunga i te taua tangata whenua ki Tiamani. Ahakoa te whakatakariri ki tēnei pōhēhē, ko te nuinga i koakoa kia waihape ki te kāinga. Ā, nō te Poutūterangi o 1919 ka tere te hokowhitu ki te wā kāinga mā runga i te kaipuke o Westmoreland.

Hurō ana te marea i te hokinga o te Hokowhitu a Tūmatauenga ki te whenua taurikura, ka mutu, ka tākaro te tīma whutupōro o te hokowhitu ki ngā moka o Aotearoa.

E 2,500 ngā toa i tū ki tāwāhi, ā, 470 nō ngā iwi o ngā moutere o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. E 336 ōna mate, neke atu i te 700 ōna taotū.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. James Cowan, The Maoris in the Great War: a history of the New Zealand Native Contingent and Pioneer Battalion: Gallipoli 1915, France and Flanders 1916–1918. Tāmaki-makaurau: Maori Regimental Committee, 1926, wh. 39. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Monty Soutar, 'Ngā pakanga ki tāwāhi - Te Hokowhitu a Tū Toa ki te Pakanga Tuatahi', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-pakanga-ki-tawahi/page-3 (accessed 26 July 2017)

Story by Monty Soutar, published 20 Jun 2012, updated 10 May 2016