Kōrero: Ngā pakanga ki tāwāhi

Whārangi 5. Te Ope Taua 28

Ngā whakaahua

Te whakaara taua

Nō te marama o Oketopa 1939 ka whakamanatia e te kāwanatanga te whakaaro kia tū te Ope Hōia Rua Tekau Mā Waru Māori. He rikarika tonu te Māori kia kitea tōna taurite ki te Pākehā, kia whiwhi hoki ki ngā mōtika tangata ōrite. I tērā wā hoki e noho taurekareka ana te Māori ki te Pākehā.

He mea whakarōpū ā-iwi te ope taua Māori, ā, i riro nā ngā rangatira o ngā iwi i hautū tēnā wāhanga, tēnā wāhanga. Ko George Dittmer te kaingārahu tuatahi o te taua, ka mutu he Pākehā matatau ki ngā rautaki pakanga, he mōrehu hoki nō te Pakanga Tuatahi. Kawa tonu atu ētahi i te whakawhiwhinga o te kaiārahitanga ki te Pākehā, engari nā tōna mārō, me tōna tohunga ki ngā whakatakataka a te taua, ka warea tēnei. Nāwai i te muranga o te riri pūwherowhero, ko ōna piki tūranga ko ngā Rūtene Kānara Māori ko Tiwi Love rātou ko Fred Baker, ko Charles Bennett, ko Reta Keiha, ko Arapeta Awatere, ko James Hēnare.

E toru marama e whakangungua ana te ope taua ki te parikarauna o te Papaiōea. Ā, nō te marama o Mei i te tau 1940, ka mahuta atu te taua e 780 tōpū ki Īhipa, hei wāhanga hoki mō te Ope Taua Tuarua o Aotearoa. Whai atu i a rātou ko ngā tira 12 tōpū hei whakakī i ngā whāwhārua. Ka whakaekea a Peretānia, ā, ka mauria te ope taua hei pā tūwatawata ki Ingarangi.

Ake, ake, kia kaha e!

Kāore i roa ka rongonui te ngaringari o te Ope Taua Māori ki ngā minenga o te ao, Pākehā mai, Māori mai hoki. Nā Anania Te Amohau o Te Arawa i tito, ā, ko te rangi i ahu mai i tētahi whare takiura i Amerika, arā, i te waiata te ‘Washington and Lee Swing’. Taro kau ake i tōna titonga i roto o Te Arawa ka waiata whānuitia e te ope taua.

Te kōkiri ki Kiriti, Kirihi me te Raki o Āwherika

I te tau 1941 ka tukuna te ope taua ki te raki o Āwherika ki Īhipa i mua i tōna tomokanga ki te mura o te ahi, arā, ki te tautiaki i a Kirihi. Whai muri i tōna whakapurunga ki te kūiti Olympus, ka manu kāwhaki te ope taua ki te motu o Kiriti. Nō konei ka mōhiotia te hautoa o te hokowhitu Māori, kia āpiti tūtia te hoariri.

Ka mārō tonu te kuratōpuni ki ngā hūneinei ki te Raki o Āwherika i ngā tau o 1941 ki 1943, ā, ka riri haere mai ki Sollum me Gazala ki Ripia, ki te whatinga mai i Minqar Qaim i Īhipa me te Riri ki Arameina. Ahakoa ngā tāiro ka pāhorotia e rātou ngā tohu whenua nui o Tebaga Gap me Takrouna ki Tūnihia. Nō te pakanga o Tebaga Gap ka tāpaea te Tohu Wikitōria ki te tipua nei ki a Rūtene Tuarua Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. I ōna parekura katoa ka kitea te hautoa o te ope taua; e 270 o rātou i mate, e 815 i taotū. O ngā amorangi tokowhitu, tokorua i patua, tokotoru i whara.

Ngā kūraku mō te Tohu Wikitōria

I te Āperira o te tau 1943 ka tonoa a Haihana Haane Te Rauawa Mānahi me te iti matakahi kia pikitia te tihi o Takrouna. I tōna māia ka tūtohua a Mānahi mō te Tohu Wikitōria engari ka whakahekea ki te tohu mētara DCM. Ka mate mai a Mānahi i te tau 1986, heoi, i te tau 2005 ka whakatuwheratia anō te kēhi e tōna rahi o Te Arawa me te RSA, kia whakawhiwhia ia ki te Tohu Wikitōria. Nō te marama o Māehe o te tau 2007 rā anō kātahi ka whakahōnoretia a Mānahi, arā, i te horanga a Pirini Andrew i te pūeru tūāhu, i te hoari, me tētahi reta mai i te Kuini.

Ngā whawhai ki Itari, 1943–45

Ka ohooho te mauri ki ngā kōkiringa tuatahi ki Itari. I te Tīhema o te tau 1943 ka parea te whakaekenga i Orsogna, ā, 50 i aituātia. I te Pēpuere o te tau 1944, ka parekuratia ngā kamupene e rua i te whakaekenga o te teihana rerewe o Cassino. O nga hōia 200, 128 ka whakamatea, ka taotū, ka mauheretia rānei. I muri mai ko te whana tuku ki roto o Florence, ā, ka whawhai haere ki Faenza tae noa ki te Tīhema i mua i te putanga o te ihu ki Trieste. Atu i te rangapū 270 te nui i tukuna ki Hapani ka hoki mai te tira kāewa ki te wā kāinga i te Hānuere o te tau 1946.

Te hautoa o te taua Māori

Kō atu i te 15,744 ngā Māori i tūao atu ki te ope taua, i tū whakaawe ai ki tāwāhi, ki te kāinga hoki. E 100,000 noa iho te taupori Māori i tērā wā. He tūao katoa ngā toa e 3,600 i tū ki roto ki te Ope Taua Māori. E 2,628 (649 i mate, 1,712 i taotū, 267 i mauheretia, i ngaro atu rānei), neke atu i te 50 ōrau te nui atu i te tauira ā-motu. E 99 ngā mētara i tāpaea ki te pātariana, ā, ko rātou te rōpū he maha rawa ōna mētara, o ngā taua mau pū o Aotearoa.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Monty Soutar, 'Ngā pakanga ki tāwāhi - Te Ope Taua 28', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-pakanga-ki-tawahi/page-5 (accessed 18 September 2019)

Story by Monty Soutar, published 20 Jun 2012, updated 1 May 2016