Kōrero: Tūroa, Tōpia Peehi

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Turoa, Topia Peehi

?–1903

Nō Te Āti Haunui-a-Pāpārangi; he amorangi

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Ian Church,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1993.

He rangatira a Tōpia Peehi Tūroa nō Ngāti Patutokotoko, hapū o Te Āti Haunui-a-Pāpārangi e noho mai rā i te taha whakarunga o te awa o Whanganui. I whai mana rawa ia ki te moana o Taupō. Nō ngā tau pea o te tekau tau atu i 1820 i whānau ai. Ko tōna īngoa i a ia e tamariki ana ko Te Mutumutu. Ko tōna pāpā ko Te Peehi Pākoro Tūroa, he tama nā Te Peehi Tūroa. He whakahekenga nō ngā tātai rangatira o Whanganui, nō Turi hoki o Aotea waka; he tātai anō hoki ōna i a Tākitimu, i a Te Arawa me Tainui. Tērā pea ko Utaora te īngoa o tōna whaene.

He taki kairiri tonu te mahi a Tōpia ā mate noa, he ngana nōna kia pū tōna mana me tērā o tōna iwi i roto i te ao Māori whānui. Ēngari e whakaae ana hoki ia ki te kaupapa whakakotahi i ngā iwi Māori, kia taea ai te kaupare atu ngā ture me ngā tikanga weti noa a te Pākehā. Ka taka te wā ka taupatupatu ēnei tūmanako i roto i a Tōpia.

He pū okaoka te kai i tōna ohinga, ā, i uru atu ia ki ngā pakanga a tana pāpā ki te tāwari i ngā Pākehā e hiahia rā ki te hoko whenua hei tūnga mō te tāone o Whanganui. Ko te tau 1847 tērā. I moe ia i a Makarena Ngārewa, he tamāhine nā Te Kahuti rāua ko Te Rangi. Tokorua ā rāua tamariki i iriiria e Pā Wiari (P. J. Viard) o te mīhana Katorika; ko Wiari Hōhepa rāua ko Hīpirini. Nō Hepetema o te tau 1857 ērā i iriiria ai. Nō te 14 o Noema o te tau o muri mai, ka whakaae a Tōpia kia iriiria rāua ko tana wahine e Pā Jean Lampila. Nō te tau 1860, i te marama o Āperira, ka iriiria tētehi anō o ā rāua tamariki, ko Ateraita, e Pā J. E. Pezant. I tōna iriiringa ka whakairia atu a Tōpia hei īngoa mōna. Tokorua ngā tamariki o muri mai e mōhiotia ana, ko Makarena rāua ko Kiingi Tōpia.

Te putanga o Tōpia hei amorangi ahurei, he kahikātoa tōna rite, he kupu mana. I te kōkiritanga a Tāmihana Te Rauparaha i tana kaupapa kīngitanga mō Aotearoa i te tau 1854, ko Tōpia tāna i mahara ai kia tū hei kīngi. E kīia ana hoki, he pērā anō te whakaaro o Mātene Te Whiwhi. Ahakoa te unu mai a Tōpia i a ia i runga i tana tautoko kē i a Iwikau Te Heuheu, i whakapono ia mā te toetoe kāpuia o te Māori i raro i tētehi kīngi, e mau ai tōna mana ki te whenua me tōna tino rangatiratanga. I Noema o te tau 1856, i Pūkawa, ka whakaaritia anō ia hei kīngi, ēngari nō tāna whakaaetanga ki ngā karere o Waikato, ka mōhiotia kua hinga atu ia ki te tautoko kia tū ko Pōtatau Te Wherowhero hei kīngi. Kātahi ka ārahina tana ope 60 te tokomaha mai i Ōhinemutu, he kāinga e pātata ana ki Pipiriki, hei tohu i tōna pono ki a Kīngi Pōtatau.

Te āhua nei, ko ia tētehi o te tira o Whanganui i tae ki Pēria i Oketopa o te tau 1862, ki te hui a te Kīngitanga i hurihuria ai ngā raruraru e hau mai rā i Waitara. I Tātaraimaka anō hoki tētehi o aua hui i te tau 1863, ā, i reira anō pea a Tōpia. Ko tana kōrero ki te minita rā, ki a Te Teira (Richard Taylor), i uru katoa ngā Māori ki roto i te raruraru o Taranaki i runga i te kaupapa pupuru i tō rātou mana. Ko te hua o tēnei raruraru, ko te urunga atu o Tōpia me tōna iwi ki raro i te māramatanga Pai Mārire i Mei o 1864. Mate ana rātou i ngā Pākehā i te pakanga i Ōhoutahi i Pēpuere o te tau 1865. I taotū a Tōpia i taua pakanga. I te 15 o Maehe ka tūtaki ki a Kāwana Hōri Kerei (George Grey), whakahua kore ana ia i te oati ki te Kuini e kūpapa ia ki raro i ōna panekoti, pērā i tana pāpā. Ko te whakapae a Kerei, ko Tōpia tētehi o te rōpū nāna i patu a James Hewett rāua ko te minita rā, ko Te Wākana (C. S. Völkner). Kātahi ka hoatu kia kotahi te rā hei rerenga mō Tōpia, ā, i muri tonu iho ka kīia kua tangata hara ia, ka pānuitia atu te £1,000 hei utu mōna me e hopukina ana.

I Āperira o te tau 1865, ka karahuitia a Pipiriki e ngā hōia a te kāwanatanga, hei rāihe. Ki a Tōpia, he whakatete tēnei; whakatika atu ka whakarauikatia tana taua 1,000 te tokomaha. Nō ngā iwi o Whanganui, nō Ngāti Pēhi, nō Ngāti Tūwharetoa, nō Ngāti Raukawa ngā toa i whakaemi ki Pukehīnau me Ōhinemutu. Ka karapotia e rātou a Pipiriki mō ngā rā 12 mai i te 19 o Hūrae. Nō te taenga mai o ngā whaitaua a te kāwanatanga, kua neke kē atu te taua a Tōpia ki kō atu o Ōhinemutu. Kotahi te whiu o tēnei mahi āna; kāore a Kerei i whakauru atu i te pāpā o Tōpia ki te rārangi whakaunu haratanga puta noa i Oketopa o te tau 1865.

Tūmanako tonu te ngākau o Tōpia kia whiwhi anō rātou i te tai moana o te awa o Whanganui, ka noho ko ōna pā kei te tata tonu ki Pipiriki hei pūnga māna i te kōkiritanga. Heoti, ko ōna haumi o Ngāti Tūwharetoa kua hiahia ki te noho rangimārie, ēngari i pūmau tonu ki tō rātou whakapono Pai Mārire. Ko Tōpia rātou ko ētehi rangatira tokowaru anake i tohe tonu ki te whawhai, ā, i kī taurangi ai rātou mā te mate rawa e mutu ai. Ka rere te kupu whakatūpato a tōna huānga, a Takuira ki a Ngāti Pēhi, me ka whai tonu rātou i a Tōpia 'e kore e pau te marama ka rangahaua taiāwhiotia a Taupō moana e te hunga mau pūtu'. Mea kau ake ana a Tōpia, 'Kore rawa mātou ko taku iwi e tuohu ki te Pākehā, hohou tahi rānei mātou me te Kāwana i te maungārongo. Kore! kore! kore rawa atu!'

I te tau 1868, ka kore te Kīngitanga e whakaae ki te tautoko i a Tītokowaru, ka puta te kōrero a Rewi Maniapoto ko Tōpia anake te reo mana o Whanganui. Ka kore a Tōpia e aro atu ki te Kīngitanga i runga i tana maninohea. Ki a ia, moumou tana tautoko i ngā rangatira ngoikore o Waikato. Nō te patunga a Te Kooti i te uri o Tōpia i Taupō i Hepetema o te tau 1869, ka kitea te huarahi e ara anō ai te mana o Whanganui. Ka whatia e Tōpia te rākau whakarawe ki te Kīngitanga, huri kē atu hei kūpapa mā te kāwanatanga. Ka whakaaratia tana taua e 200 te maha hei āwhina i a Te Keepa Te Rangihiwinui ki te whai i a Te Kooti. Nō muri mai tēnei i te whiunga a Te Keepa i Te Pōrere i Oketopa o te tau 1869.

I Noema, ka kōrerorero a Tōpia ki a Te Pōkiha (William Fox) i Ōhinemutu me Rānana. Ko tētehi o ngā take i kōrerohia e ia ko te mauheretanga i a Ngāwaka Taurua me tōna iwi o Pakakohe i Ōtepoti (Dunedin). Kāore a Te Pōkiha i whakaae ki te tuku i taua iwi. Hei tohu i te whakakotahitanga ki ngā iwi o te taha whakararo o Whanganui, ka tāraia e Tōpia te pakoko o Hōri Kīngi Te Ānaua ki te poutokomanawa o tana whare hou, o Te Ao Mārama; i Ōhinemutu tēnei whare. Hei tohu i te pono o te kāwanatanga, ka whakawhiwhia e Te Pōkiha a Tōpia ki ngā raiwhara Enfield, 40 te nui me ngā hāmanu. Kātahi ka hīkina te ara o te pakanga e te taua a Te Keepa i te whakapaunga o Tīhema ki te kimi i a Te Kooti. Ko Tōpia i te ihu o tēnei taua.

Nō te 24 o Hānuere i te tau 1870 ka horo a Tāpapa ēngari kāore a Te Kooti i mau. Ka whāia ki te taupae o Mamaku ēngari nā te weriweri o te whenua ka uaua te kimi i a Te Kooti. I Ōhiwa, i Te Moana-a-Toi (Bay of Plenty) e noho ana te taua a Tōpia. Koinei tōna nohoanga e takahia ai e ia ngā whaitua o Te Urewera. Noho nei ka tū ia hei meiha i roto i te Ope Hōia Māori o ngā Hōia ā-Iwi o Niu Tīreni (New Zealand Militia). Tekau mā rima mano pāuna te moni i whakawhiwhia ki a rāua ko Te Keepa hei utu i ā rāua tāngata, ā, ka whakawhiwhia hoki a Tōpia ki te penihana, 200 pāuna i te tau te nui.

I muri mai i te horonga o te pā o Waipuna i Waiōeka i te tau 1870, ka hoki te taua o Whanganui ki te kāinga. Kotahi rau ngā tāngata a Te Kooti i mau i taua pakanga. E kīia ana kāore a Tōpia e whakaae ki te whakawhiti atu i aua mauhere ki a Te Keepa hei patunga māna. Nō Āperira, ka hoki te taua ki Whanganui mā runga tima.

I Āperira o te tau 1872, i te pōwhiritanga a Tōpia ki a Kāwana Poena (George Bowen) ki Tokaanu ka mea ia: 'He tangata he whenua te pūtake o ōku raru tae atu hoki ki a Tāwhiao me ngā roherohenga o ō mātou whenua.' Me tana whakarite anō i a ia ki te hipi kua hoki mai ki te kāhui. He nui kē atu te hari mō tōna kotahi i hoki mai i tēnā mō te hunga 99 i noho tonu ki te kāinga. Ahakoa tana whakanui i Poena ka puta anō tana kōrero whakatūpato mō te hao o te Pākehā i Taupō.

Ka haere tonu ngā kōrero mō ngā raruraru o te whenua. Ka kōrerorero a Tōpia ki a Te Whiti‑o-Rongomai kia haere ki te kōti pakanga ai i āna take whenua; kāore a Te Whiti i whakaae. Nā te kore o te kāwanatanga e aro nui atu ki ngā take whenua, ka huri anō a Tōpia ki te āwhina i a Tāwhiao. Nō te tau 1884, ka haere rāua tahi ki Rānana (London) i Ingarangi. Ahakoa tō rāua tūtaki ki a Rōre Tāpiri (Derby), ko tā rāua pitihana ki a Kuini Wikitōria i whakahokia mai mā te kāwanatanga o Niu Tīreni e whiriwhiri. I muri o te hokinga mai o Tāwhiao mā i Rānana, ka karangatia he hui e Tōpia rāua ko Hōri Rōpiha ki Poutū, kei kō tata tonu ki Roto-a-Ira (Rotoaira). Kotahi mano ngā tāngata o te rohe i tae. Ka whakatakotoria e Tōpia āna take: tuatahi, ko te whakaae ki te mana o Kīngi Tāwhiao; tuarua, ko te whakaae ki te mana o Kuini Wikitōria ēngari kia kaua e whakamanahia tō te kāwanatanga o te koroni; tuatoru, kia kaua e heria ngā take whenua ki te Kōti Whenua Māori; tuawhā, kia katia ngā rūri, ngā hoko me ngā rīhi whenua. Ka puta anō tana kōrero kia kaua ngā Māori e uru atu ki ngā pōti mō ngā Mema Māori o te Pāremata, ēngari kia whakatūtūria ngā komiti i raro i te mana o Tāwhiao hei whakahaere i ngā take ā-rohe. Ka tau hoki te kōrero a te hui kia ātetetia te huarahi tereina matua, i runga i te kore e haere hei kaimahi mō taua huarahi, i runga hoki i te whakatakoto i te utu nui mō ngā rākau mō taua huarahi.

Ki te pūrongo o 1886 a Meiha David Scannell, kaiwhakawā o Taupō, nā te katinga i te penihana o Tōpia mō tana haerenga ki Ingarangi, i pērā ai tōna āhua. Me tana kī anō, kāore a Tōpia e āta whakaatu i ōna whakaaro i runga i te ngākau whakatūpato. Kāore taua hui i eke rawa ki tā te ngākau i tūmanako ai nā te mea kāore i tae atu ngā rangatira pērā i a Tāwhiao, ā, e ai ki ngā kōrero pūhohe a Scannell, i huri tonu iho ngā rangatira i tae rā ki te hui, ki te takahi i te kōrero a Tōpia. Riro kē ana ko rātou ngā mea tuatahi ki te heri i ā rātou take whenua ki te kōti.

Ka roroku haere te mana o Tōpia ki te rohe o te tonga o Taupō. Ko āna kerēme mō Ruapehu i te tau 1886, kāore i arohia ake. Ko tā Ngāti Tūwharetoa kerēme te mea i tirohia. I te tau o muri iho, ka mate a Tōpine Te Mamaku, rangatira o Ngāti Hāuaterangi iwi o Whanganui. Tū ana ko Tōpia hei manu kura mō ngā iwi o Whanganui. Nō konei, ka iti tana tahuri atu ki ngā mahi whakahaere o Taupō. I te hui i Koriniti i Hepetema o te tau 1889, ko ia te tiamana o te hui whiriwhiri i te kaupapa kia ahua te awa o Whanganui hei haerenga mō ngā tima ki Taumarunui. Ka whakaae ngā iwi o te awa ki te kaupapa mehemea ka tiakina ō rātou pā tuna e tūtū ana i taua awa. Ēngari tū ana te raruraru i waenganui i aua iwi me ngā kaikonotaraka i te tau 1892 ki te 1893. I Maehe o te tau 1894 ka haere a Te Hētana (Richard Seddon), minita mō ngā mahi nunui, minita mō ngā take Māori, rāua ko Timi Kara (James Carroll), mema Māori o te Kaunihera Whirwhiri (Executive Council), ki Tieke ki te kōrero ki a Tōpia mō ngā raruraru nei. Ka tau te kaupapa i runga i te whakaae a ngā karere a te kāwanatanga ki te whakatū tāone me tētehi whare kura ki Pipiriki.

I ngā tau whakamutunga o Tōpia, ka tau ōna whakaaro kohuki mō ngā taupatupatutanga o ngā rā o mua. Kua tau hoki tana noho rāua ko te kāwanatanga. Nō nahea rā, ka utua anō tana penihana. I Hune o te tau 1901, ka tae ia ki te pōwhiri a te iwi Māori mō te Tiuka o Cornwall, o York, rāua ko tana hoa rangatira i Rotorua. Ka heke mai ia i te awa ki Kūkuta, ā, muri iho ka noho ki Aramoho. I reira ka hē te manawa i te 26 o Oketopa i te tau 1903.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Ian Church. 'Tūroa, Tōpia Peehi - Turoa, Topia Peehi', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1993. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/2t55/turoa-topia-peehi (accessed 17 October 2019)