Kōrero: Te Rauparaha, Tāmihana

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Ngā whakaahua

Te Rauparaha, Tamihana

?–1876

Nō Ngāti Toa; he kaihautū, he āteha, he mihinare, he kaituhi, he kaiahu whenua

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Steven Oliver,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1990.

He tama a Tāmihana Te Rauparaha, (ko Katu anō tētahi o ana īngoa), nā te tino rangatira o Ngāti Toa, nā Te Rauparaha me tana wahine tuarima, nā Te Ākau, o Tūhourangi. Koianei tonu te wahine matua a Te Rauparaha. I whānau mai a Tāmihana i Pukearuhe, he pā nō Ngāti Tama i te raki o Taranaki, i te wā o te haerenga roa o Ngāti Toa mai i Kāwhia ki te tonga. I tōna iriiringa, nā te mihinare o te Rōpū Hāhi Mihinare (Church Missionary Society), nā Te Harawira (Octavius Hadfield), i whakahaere i te 21 Maehe 1841, ka tapā ko Tāmihana (Thompson). Mai i taua wā ka noho tūturu ko Tāmihana tana īngoa. Ko te wahine i moea e ia ko Ruta Te Kapu, te tamāhine a Tāwhiri, o Ngāti Raukawa. Nā Te Harawira rāua i mārena i Ōtaki i te 11 o Hepetema 1843.

I te wā e kōhungahunga tonu ana a Katu he mea kawe a ia ki te motu o Kapiti, te kāinga hou o Ngāti Toa. He tamaiti tonu a ia, ka haere i te taha o tana pāpā ki ngā pakanga. Na, i tētahi wā i a ia e mahi kariri ana, nāna i maka ki rō ahi te paura o te pū. Te pakūtanga ka whara a ia me ētahi atu. Ko a ia tētahi i reira i te wā i tukia ai te pā o Kaiapoi i te tau 1831, ā, i te taha a ia o tana pāpā i te tau 1833, i te wā i heipū rātou ki tētahi ope kauaeroa, o Ngāi Tahu, i Kāparatehau (Lake Grassmere). I āta tuhituhia e ia ngā kōrero mō ēnei pakanga, ā, nāna anō i kohikohi ngā kōrero a Te Rauparaha. He tino taonga ēnei tuhituhi ki te hunga āta titiro i ngā āhuatanga o ērā wā.

Tērā ētahi Māori i kāhakina hereheretia ki Pēwhairangi (Bay of Islands). I te wā i huri ai o rātou rangatira ki te hāhi Karaitiana ka tukuna rātou kia haere, ā, nā rātou te kaupapa Karaitiana i mau ki Kapiti me Ōtaki, ki te wāhi e noho ana a Katu. I Noema 1839, ka haere a Katu rāua ko tana whanaunga, a Mātene Te Whiwhi, ki Pēwhairangi mā runga kaipuke, ki te rapa i tētahi mihinare mō te rohe o Kapiti. Ka hoki mai a Te Karu Whā (Henry Williams) rāua ko Te Harawira i ō rāua taha, ā, ka noho pūmau iho a Te Harawira ki te tahatai o Kapiti. Kāti, i te tau 1843 ka haere a Katu, e mōhiotia ana ki tōna īngoa hou i nāianei ki a Tāmihana, rāua ko Te Whiwhi ki Te Waipounamu ki te kauhau i te kaupapa Karaitiana ki ō rāua whanaunga i reira, me ō rātou hoariri o mua, ki a Ngāi Tahu. I pātai ētahi o ngā rangatira o Ngāi Tahu mehemea kei te haere ake tana pāpā ki te tuki i a rātou. Kotahi anake te whakahoki a Tāmihana; 'E kore taku pāpā e haere mai, nā te mea ko au tēnei e hohou nei i te rongo kia mutu ai ngā pakanga, ā, e anga nei au mā ngā kupu o te Karaipiture e hohou te rongo ki waenganui i a tātou katoa'. I te tau i muri mai, ka takahi rāua ko Pīhopa Herewini (G. A. Selwyn) i te whenua o Te Waipounamu. Koianei te haerenga tuatahi o Te Herewini i te mata o tērā whenua. Na, ko tana karakia tuatahi he mea whakahaere i Te Wai-a-Te Ruatī, e tata rā ki Arowhenua. Koianei te huarahi i whāia e Tāmihana, i taea ai te whakamutu i ngā pakanga i reira, ā, i uru atu ai te kaupapa Karaitiana ki tērā motu.

Kātahi ka tonoa a ia e tana pāpā kia haere ki Te Awakairangi (Hutt Valley), ki Ōrongomai me Pūrehurehu, ki te titiro mehemea kua mahue i ngā Māori ngā whenua e noho kūraruraru tonu ana, i runga i te whakahau a Te Rauparaha rāua ko Te Rangihaeata. I haere ia ki te Kāreti o Hoani Te Kaikauhau i Tāmaki-makau-rau (Auckland), ā, i reira tonu ia i te wā i mau hereheretia tana pāpā e Kāwana Hōri Kerei (George Grey). Ki tāna, i tana haerenga kia kite i tana pāpā i runga i te kaipuke rā, i te Calliope, koianei ngā kupu a tana pāpā; 'E tama! Me haere kōrua ko Mātene [Te Whiwhi] ki te iwi, ka kī atu kauaka e pakanga mōku, e whakaaro kino rānei, kei riri, kei mauāhara te Pākehā; mā te whakaaro pai anake ki te tangata e ora ai te tāne, te wahine me te tamaiti'. Nā Tāmihana i pānui tēnei karere i Ōtaki, i te wā e whakatikatika tonu ana a Ngāti Raukawa ki te ngaki i te mau hereheretanga o Te Rauparaha. E mea ana hoki rātou ki te porotūtataki atu ki a Te Rangihaeata ki te tuki i te tāone o Pōneke (Wellington). Nā ngā kupu a Te Rauparaha i kore ai rātou i whakaeke i taua tāone. I a Te Rauparaha e mau herehere ana i Tāmaki-makau-rau, ka whakaae a Tāmihana me ētahi atu rangatira o Ngāti Toa ki te hoko i ngā whenua mānia o Te Wairau ki te kāwanatanga, e £3,000 te utu. Na, i te putanga mai o Te Rauparaha i te whare herehere, nā Tāmihana ia i pōwhiri ki Ōtaki. Ko Tāmihana tētahi o ngā rangatira rangatahi i mau ki ngā kākahu o tauiwi, ā, i whakarite i a ia ki te Pākehā. Pēnei tonu i te whare Pākehā tōna whare, ā, i whai tūmau Pākehā anō ia. He tino tohunga ia ki ngā mahi whāngai hipi, he tangata tino whai moni, ā, tae rawa atu ki te tau 1866 kua eke kē ki te 700 te tokomaha o ana hipi. He whenua ōna i Ōtaki me ngā rohe o Te Awahou (Foxton), ā, e ai ki te kōrero pēnei tonu tana noho i tā te rangatira Pākehā nui te whenua.

I wehe atu a Tāmihana rātou ko Jane Williams me Te Wiremu (William Williams) ki Ingarangi i te 19 o Tīhema 1850. I haere rātou me ētahi atu mihinare me ō rātou whānau, i runga i te kaipuke o te Rōpū Hāhi Wēteriana (Wesleyan Missionary Society), ko te īngoa ko te John Wesley. I tae atu rātou i te marama o Āperira 1851. Na, i te 30 o Hune 1852, ka tae a Tāmihana ki te aroaro o Kuini Wikitōria (Victoria). Nō te tau i muri mai ka hoki mai ia ki Aotearoa. Kātahi ia ka tīmata ki te whakatinana i te kaupapa whakatū Kīngi mō te iwi Māori, hei whakakotahi i ngā iwi katoa, hei whakarite ture hoki kia mārō, kia pai ai tā rātou noho i te whenua o Aotearoa. I whakaae a Pōtatau Te Wherowhero o Ngāti Mahuta ko ia hei Kīngi, ka whakawahia i Ngāruawāhia i te tau 1858. He kaitautoko a Tāmihana i ngā mahi a te Kīngi ki te aukati i ngā mahi hoko a te Māori i ō rātou whenua ki te Pākehā. Ki a ia hoki mā te whakatepe anake i te uru mai o te Pākehā ki ngā whenua Māori e taea ai e ngā iwi e rua te noho i runga i te rangimārie.

Te porotūtatakitanga o ngā kaitautoko o te Kīngi ki a Wiremu Kīngi Te Rangitāke, o Te Āti Awa, i a ia e aukati ana i te hoko a te kāwanatanga i te whenua o Waitara i te tau 1860, ka wewete mai a Tāmihana i a ia ki waho o te Kīngitanga. I Mei o 1860, kāore ia i whakaae kia rere te haki o te Kīngi i Ōtaki. Ka haere ia atu i reira ki Pāpāwai, ki te mautohe kia kaua aua iwi e tautoko i te mana o te Kīngi. Ka tuhi i tana reta ki a Pīhopa Herewini i te 19 o Āperira 1860, kei te noho uruwehi ia kei toropā mai ki te tonga te pakanga o Taranaki, ka uru mai ki roto o Ōtaki. Ko tana tino hiahia, ki tāna kōrero ki a Te Herewini, kia noho te Māori me te Pākehā i runga i te rangimārie, kia tūhauora, kia noho hoki i runga i te whakaaro pai. I te whakamutunga o te tekau tau mai i 1860, he mahi nui tā rāua ko Tāmihana ki te ārai i te pakanga kia kore e uru mai ki te rohe o Te Ūpoko-o-te-Ika. Nā rāua i whakaae ai ngā iwi me waiho Te Ūpoko-o-te-Ika hei wāhi rangimārie, kia wātea mai i te pakanga. Otirā, ko ngā mea e hiahia ana ki te haere ki ngā pakanga o te raki ka tukuna kia haere atu i Te Ūpoko-o-te-Ika.

I te tau 1866, nā Tāmihana i tautoko te hokonga o te poraka whenua o Rangitīkei–Manawatū; ahakoa ngā whakahē a ētahi o ngā iwi o Ngāti Raukawa i reira e noho ana, e tautoko ana hoki i te Kīngitanga. I tautoko anō ngā iwi o Ngāti Toa me ētahi atu iwi e noho ana i reira i mua i te whakaekenga o ngā ope taua o te raki, ki te hokonga o taua poraka whenua. Ahakoa ngā kokoraho a Ngāti Raukawa nō rātou taua whenua, nā te mea i toa rātou i ngā pakanga, he mea hoko tonu ki te kāwanatanga, ā, ko te utu £25,000. Na, i te tau 1869 ka haere a Tāmihana i te taha o te kāwana, o G. F. Bowen, ki Te Waipounamu whānui tonu. Ko Wī Tako Ngātata rāua ko Mete Kīngi Te Rangi Paetahi ō rāua hoa. Te taenga ki te tau 1864 kua noho āteha matua tonu a Tāmihana, ā, ko tana utu £100 i te tau.

Nō ngā rā 22, 23 rānei o Oketopa 1876, ka mate a Tāmihana Te Rauparaha, ā, ki tētahi o ngā tuhituhi mō tana hemonga, 57 tōna pakeke i tōna matenga. E ai ki te kōrero, i tāpuketia a Tāmihana i Ōtaki i te taha o tana wahine i mate mai rā i te tau 1870. Ēngari kāhore he matohu o tana rua. Kāore ā rāua tamariki ake, ēngari nā rāua i whāngai a Wiremu Kerei Kūpapa.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Steven Oliver. 'Te Rauparaha, Tāmihana - Te Rauparaha, Tamihana', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1t75/te-rauparaha-tamihana (accessed 20 October 2019)