Kōrero: Te Rangihiwinui, Te Keepa

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Te Rangihiwinui, Te Keepa

?–1898

Nō Mua-ūpoko; he kaiārahi toa, he āteha, he āpiha hoko whenua

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Anthony Dreaver,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1990.

I whānau a Te Rangihiwinui i ngā tau tīmatanga pea o te tekau tau mai i 1820, i Tūwhakatupua, i Ōpiki, kei te awa o Manawatū; arā atu anō ōna īngoa, ko Taitoko, ā, nō muri nei, ko Te Keepa me Meiha Kemp. Ko tana whaea ko Rere-ō-maki, he tuahine nō Te Ānaua rangatira o Ngāti Ruakā. Ko ōna tino hapū, ko Ngāti Ruakā, me Ngāti Tūpoho, karangatanga hapū o Te Āti Haunui-a-Pāpārangi. Ko te whaea o Rere-ō-maki nō Te Arawa. Ko te matua o Te Keepa, ko Māhuera Paki Tanguru-o-te-rangi, he rangatira nui nō roto o Mua-ūpoko. E kōrerotia ana tokotoru ngā wāhine a Te Rangihiwinui. Ko te wahine matua, ko Mākere, arā, ko Mākareta, he huānga tata tonu ki a ia. E ora tonu ana tana wahine tuatoru a Te Mata Kaihoe i te wā i mate ai ia.

Nō te wā mai ka whānau a Te Rangihiwinui, ki te wā e tamariki tonu ana ia, kua mate hēmanawa katoa ngā iwi o Te Tai Hauāuru, a Ngāti Apa, a Rangitāne, a Mua-ūpoko i ngā iwi i heke mai i te raki, arā, i a Ngāti Toa me ō rātou hoa o Ngāti Raukawa me Te Āti Awa. E kōrerotia ana, i te wā i whakaekengia ai e Te Rauparaha te motu i te moana o Horowhenua, ka kauhoe mai a Rere-ō-maki i te moana me tana tamaiti i te tuarā e waha ana. Ko Mua-ūpoko i ora ake, ā, ko ngā mōrehu o Mua-ūpoko i noho i raro i te maru o Ngāti Raukawa mō ngā tau maha tonu; ēngari anō a Rere-ō-maki, aTanguru me Te Rangihiwinui i taki noho katoa i te taha o te iwi o Rere-ō-maki i Pūtiki-wharanui, i te pūaha o te awa o Whanganui.

I kaha tonu te mana o te mīhana, o te Rōpū Hāhi Mihingare (Church Missionary Society) i whakatūria ki Pūtiki i te tau 1841, ki ngā iwi o te taha whakararo o te awa o Whanganui. E ai ki ngā kōrero, i iriiria a Te Rangihiwinui ki te īngoa o Te Keepa, i Pūtiki. Ēngari i rerekē atu ia i ana whanaunga rā, i a Hoani Wiremu Hīpango, i a Te Māwae, i a Te Ānaua; i aro nui kē atu ia ki ngā mahi whawhai tēnā ki ngā mahi a te Hāhi. Nō waenganui o te tekau tau mai i 1840, ko ia tonu tētehi i roto i ngā mahi tāpui i te rohe o te poraka o Whanganui, ā, ka riro atu i a ia te wāhanga £10 o te utu i te tutukitanga o te hoko i te marama o Mei 1848.

I taua wā, e tū ana ia hei pirihimana i roto i te Ope Pirihimana Mau Pū o Whanganui. Tērā pea i mahi ia i te taha o Meiha D. S. Durie i Waikanae; i raro ia i a Durie e mahi ana i te nukuhanga mai ki Whanganui hei kaiwhakawā i te marama o Āperire 1851. Mahi pirihimana ai a Durie rātou ko ana hoa ko Te Keepa, ko Peneāmine, ko Poutahi; me te harihari mēra i Taranaki ki Pōneke (Wellington) mā te huarahi ki te takutai moana.

Tae rawa ki 1862, ko Te Keepa rāua ko Hīpango ngā Māori i kaha rawa atu te tautoko i te kāwanatanga. Nā ngā whawhai i Taranaki i ngā tau 1860–61 ka noho āwangawanga te Pākehā; i tino āwangawanga ai nā ngā mahi a ngā iwi o te taha whakarunga o te awa o Whanganui. Koinei te take i haere ai a Te Keepa rāua ko Hīpango ki Pōneke i te tau 1862, ki te inoi ki a Kāwana Hōri Kerei (George Grey) kia haere atu ki a rātou. Ka tae rā a Kerei ki Pūtiki; āhua raruraru te iwi i a ia, he kore nōna i whakaae ki te haere ki te whakataki i ngā iwi i te taha whakarunga o te awa e noho ana. Ahakoa rā, i whakaīngoatia e ia he kaiwhakawā Māori.

I waiho nā te huringa o ngā iwi i runga ake o te awa o Whanganui ki te whai i te Pai Mārire i te tau 1864, hei take e pakanga ai ngā iwi o Whanganui. Ka rangatira ngā iwi o te taha whakararo o te awa i te mīhana i Pūtiki, me ngā Pākehā hokohoko taonga, ka katia te Hauhau kia kore e taea te huaki te tāone. I tae a Te Keepa ki te riri i Moutoa, he motu tēnei kei te awa o Whanganui, ā, i reira te kauparetanga o ngā Hauhau i te 14 o Mei 1864. Ko ia hoki tētehi o te ope taua i horo i a rātou te pā matua o ngā Hauhau, i Ōhoutahi, i tua mai o Pipiriki, i te marama o Pēpuere 1865. I mate a Hīpango ki reira. I whakanuia e ngā Pākehā ngā Māori wawao i te tāone o Whanganui. Ka whakawhiwhia ki te haki o Moutoa. Ka whakaarahia he whakapakoko kōhatu.

http://www.teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1t64/te-rangihiwinui-te-keepa

Kātahi ka karangahia e Isaac Featherston, e te kaiwhakahaere ā-porowini, he hui ki Pūtiki i Tīhema, 1865, ki te kimi hōia mō tana ope. Kua kitea te māia o te Māori; kāti, nā te kaha itiiti o te utu, ka whakatenetene ngā Māori. Ahakoa anō, 100 ki te 200 ngā tāngata i whakamauru atu ki a Te Keepa. I tua atu o tana iwi o Whanganui, he wāhanga anō nō tana iwi o Horowhenua i tae atu. I uru katoa rātou ki raro i a Kāpene Thomas McDonnell, i te pakanga a Meiha Tianara Trevor Chute i Taranaki ki te tonga, i Hānuere ki Pēpuere 1866. Ko te wāhi nui o ngā whawhai nā ngā Māori, ā, i tāoro katoa i a rātou ngā kāinga e whitu i te rā kotahi. Ka hau ngā rongo o Te Keepa i te pakanga nei nā runga i tana māia me tana kakama.

Mutu rawa ake te tau 1866, kua riro mā Tītokowaru te ope Hauhau e ārahi; ā, nō tōna kitenga tērā rātou ka mate i te hiakai, kātahi ka whakahuangia te tau 1867, ko 'te tau o te rēme' he wā rangimārie. Ka tae ki waenganui o te tau 1868, ka tohe anō a Tītokowaru i tana kāinga i Te Ngutu-o-te-manu, kei te taha raki o te awa o Waingongoro. I roto katoa i ngā riri o te tau i muri mai, kua eke ko tōna mana ki runga i ngā whenua o te takutai moana, tata tonu ka tae ki Whanganui. Matemate ana i a Tītokowaru ngā ope a te kāwanatanga – he hōia tūturu ētehi, he pirihimana ngāherehere (Forest Rangers) ētehi, he hunga whakaae noa iho hei hōia ētehi, he toa Māori ētehi. O ngā ope taua katoa a te kāwanatanga, ko Te Keepa anake rātou ko ana toa ngā mea i whakanuia e te motu. He huhua tonu ngā wā i waihangatia rātou hei pūmanawa mō ngā hōia Pākehā e hoki whakamuri ana. Ko te wā i a McDonnell tērā i Pungarehu me Te Ngutu-o-te-manu i Hepetema 1868, me te wā anō hoki i a Kānara G. S. Whitmore i Moturoa i Noema. I waimarie ai te Pākehā i te pakanga nei, nā te whakarerenga a Tītokowaru mā i te pā i Taurangaika i te marama o Pēpuere 1869.

Ka tukuna a Te Keepa rātou ko tana 'ope rere rangi' (Flying Column) ki te whai i a Tītokowaru. Ka riro koinei te wā tuatahi i whakaae ai te hōia Pākehā kia riro mā te Māori ia e ārahi. He whai i whakangaromia ai te aroha; ko tā Te Keepa hoki, he whakamau. Tata tonu ka aituā i ētehi wā, ā, āta tae atu ana a Tītokowaru rātou ko ana mōrehu ake ki te wāhi ruru o roto o Waitara.

Nō te marama o Noema 1868, ka whakapikingia a Te Keepa ki te tūranga meiha; mau tonu ai ērā īngoa ōna ko Meiha Keepa, ko Major Kemp. He wehi tonu ngā iwi ki ngā toa a Te Keepa, pērā anō ki a Rāpata Wahawaha o Te Tai Rāwhiti. Ka noho koinei ngā tino hōia a te kāwanatanga. Nō ngā tau 1868–69, ka tukuna ngā ope e rua nei ki te whawhai ki a Te Kooti i Te Tai Rāwhiti. Ko te tikanga, mā Rūtene Kānara J. L. Herrick e ārahi ngā hōia a te kāwanatanga i te whakaeketanga i te pā whakamutunga a Te Kooti i Te Pōrere, i te taha tonga o Tokaanu, i te marama o Oketopa 1869; heoi, i riro kē nā Te Keepa rātou ko ana toa i ārahi. Kua teitei kē ōna mana i tana hokinga ki Whanganui ki te kimi hōia anō māna; i te mutunga iho, ka whakawhirinaki atu a Tōpia Tūroa me ana toa 200 ki a ia. Nō te whāinga i a Te Kooti i te rohe o Ngā Kurī-ā-Whārei ki Tihirau (Bay of Plenty), i Rotorua, me Te Urewera, ka tīmata te wetewete i ngā Pirihimana Mau Pū Pākehā ki waho o ngā riri, kia waiho mā ngā toa Māori e kawe te riri. He riri i ongaonga ai ki a Te Kooti, he kore nōna e mau. Ka tahuri ki te pāhuahua i ngā kāinga o Te Urewera.

Hoki rawa ake a Te Keepa rātou ko tana ope 100 ki Whanganui, i te tau 1871, kua hau kē ōna rongo, kua whakamihi hoki te kāwanatanga ki a ia. Nā runga i ngā whakamihi a Whitmore rāua ko Kerei mōna, ka uiuia e te hēkeretari mō ngā whenua o tāwāhi (secretary of state for the colonies), e Ēara Granville, tētehi tohu mōna. Ka tukuna he koha ki a Te Keepa, i te marama o Hune 1870, ko te hoari a te Kuini (Sword of Honour). I te tau 1874 ko te rīpeka o Niu Tīreni (New Zealand Cross), i te tau 1876 ko te mētara o Niu Tīreni mō Tūmatauenga (New Zealand War Medal). Ahakoa ngā hōnore i ūhia ki runga i a ia, ko ōna tino mana, nō tana iwi Māori kē; nā te manawapā ki ōna mōhiotanga ki te whawhai, ka tīmata ana hoariri ki te whakakotahi i a rātou. Ahakoa maungārongo, ahakoa riri rānei, ka ngana ia kia tū tonu ko ia tonu hei rangatira mōna.

Nō te marama o Hune 1865, ka whakatūria ia hei āteha mō te Kōti Whenua Māori; i tū anō ia hei āteha i raro i te Ture Whakarite Kōti Māori (Native Circuit Courts Act) 1858 me te ture mō ngā kaiwhakawā takiwā (Resident Magistrates' Court Act) 1858. I whakatūria ia hei āpiha hoko whenua i Whanganui i te tau 1871; ko tana utu, £300. E rua tau i muri mai, kei raruraru ai tana tūranga rā, i te mea he hikohiko nōna i runga i ngā mana i ūhia ki a ia me tana ope hōia, ki te whakatakahuri i te takakinohanga o tana iwi i tōna tamarikitanga. He nui ngā mea o Ngāti Raukawa i huri ki te manaaki i a Tītokowaru i ngā tau 1868–69, i āwhina rānei i ō rātou whanaunga i te pakanga i Waikato. Ēngari anō ngā iwi o Te Manawatū, me Horowhenua, ko te nuinga i huri ki te tautoko i te kāwanatanga. I waimarie a Rangitāne rāua ko Mua-ūpoko i te tūponotanga o te pakanga nei hei nanaotanga mā rātou i ngā whenua i raupatungia i 1820. Ka whakataetae a Te Keepa, te kaiārahi o Mua-ūpoko ki a Kāwana Hūnia Te Hākeke, te kaiārahi o Ngāti Apa i Parewanui kei Bulls, kia kitea ō rāua mana. He ngana nō Ngāti Raukawa ki Horowhenua ki te whakatū i ngā rohe ā-iwi i raro i te ture, i te tau 1871, i karangahia ai e Hūnia he hui mō ngā iwi o Whanganui, o Te Manawatū, me Te Wairarapa ki Horowhenua i taua tau anō. Kātahi ka haria atu e Te Keepa ana toa o Mua-ūpoko kua pūkengatia rā ki te whawhai, ki te hanga pā tūwatawata ki te taha o te moana o Horowhenua. Ko Pipiriki te īngoa. Heoi, i riri motumotu noa iho te riri. Ka rere a Te Mākarini (Donald McLean), te minita mō ngā take Māori, ki te haukoti atu, kātahi ka kawea te take rā ki te Kōti Whenua Māori i Te Awahou (Foxton) i te tau 1873. Nā ngā wero a Te Keepa ki te kaiwhakawā, ina kore ia e tahuri ki te whakarahi atu i ngā whenua o Mua-ūpoko, ka mauria mai e ia tana ope taua, e 400 te tokomaha i Whanganui. Ka purua te tukunga mai o te whenua. Ka whakawhiua a Te Keepa mō tana kapatau, ka panaia i tana tūranga āteha, ēngari nō te tau o muri mai ka tū anō hei āteha.

Ahakoa nā te tautoko a ētehi o ngā iwi i te kāwanatanga i te wā o te pakanga i iwi kore ai rātou, kua pūmau kē te mana o Te Keepa i tōna takiwā. Ko tōna mana, he mana toa, he mana rangatira mai i a Mua-ūpoko, me te kotahi o tōna iwi. Nō te tau 1876, i whakataetae ia ki a Hoani Nahe hei mema Pāremata mō Te Tai Hauāuru; kāre i whiwhi. Ka tae ki te tau 1880, ka tū ia i runga i ōna mana ki te whakatau tikanga e riro ai mā te Māori tonu ōna whenua e whakahaere. I whai kē ia kia riro motuhake ngā whakahaere whenua mā te Māori, tae atu ki ōna āhuatanga katoa; kāore mō te whakatikatika i te whenua anake. Ko tana kupu: 'Ki te hoko koe i ō whenua, kua noho ware koe'.

Nō Hepetema 1880, ka whakatūria e ia he komiti kaitiaki whenua Māori i Whanganui. Tērā tētehi whenua i uta o Whanganui, ka poua he pou whakairo ki ngā koko e whā, kātahi ka whakatapungia ki te kaihoko Pākehā. He mea tuku te whenua nei mā tētehi komiti Māori hei whakahaere mō te hunga nō rātou, kātahi ka whakaritea e te ture ko Te Keepa hei tiaki i raro i tētehi pukapuka kaitiaki. I pērāngia anō tētehi whenua i Horowhenua, ka whakaritea anō ko ia hei 'Kaitiaki'. Ka whakatūngia he rā whakanui i te pounga i te pou tuatahi. E rere ana ngā haki, e pakū ana ngā pū, ka mutu ka hākari. Ka ohorere ka ongaonga ngā Pākehā ki te mana o ngā Māori, āpiti atu hoki kua katia te awa i runga atu o te pou i Kauarapaoa ki te Pākehā. Me mātua tono rawa ki a Te Keepa, ka whakatuwherahia. Nā te kaha nui o tana ope taua, ka whakaaro ngā Pākehā me whakatūpato. Heoi, nā ngā raruraru o muri nei, tae atu ki te whenua i tautohengia i Murimotu, i Waiōuru, i raupatungia rā e Mua-ūpoko, ka panaia a Te Keepa i te tūranga āpiha hoko whenua, ka tangohia anō tana mana āteha.

I rata te nuinga o ngā iwi ki ngā whakaaro o Te Keepa mō te whakatikatika i te iwi Māori, tae atu ki a Paranihi (John Ballance), te ētita o te nūpepa o Whanganui, he mema Pāremata hoki. Nō te tau 1884, ka noho a Paranihi hei minita mō ngā take Māori i te kāwanatanga a Stout rāua ko Vogel, ka mutu ka hangaia e ia he ture kia riro anō i te kāwanatanga te mana hoko o ngā whenua Māori ēngari mā te Māori anō hei whakahaere. I uru a Paranihi ki roto i ngā ope whawhai o Whanganui ki te pakanga ki a Tītokowaru, ā, nā tana manawapā ki a Te Keepa, ka whakahokia anō ngā tūranga i tangohia rā.

Ka whakaaengia e Te Keepa he whenua, e iwa māero te roa i te poraka o Horowhenua hei hanga rerewē mai i Pōneke ki Te Manawatū (Wellington and Manawatū Railway Company). E hia rā ngā tau i muri mai ka whakaaengia e ia te rerewē puta noa i Te Ika-a-Māui.

Ka tae ki ngā tau whakamutunga o te tekau tau atu i 1880, mau tonu tana whakatuanui ēngari kua māuiuihia. Kua tū mai ana nama ki ngā rōia mō ana mahi whakahaere whenua. Kātahi ka tono te kāwanatanga, i te tau 1886, i tētehi whenua 4,000 eka te nui i te poraka o Horowhenua. He whenua tēnei i paingia hei tūnga papa kāinga i runga i te kaupapa i whakaarohia rā e Paranihi. Whakaae tonu a Te Keepa ki te hoko, ēngari kia tū rawa he tāone ki runga i te whenua, kia tapaina hoki ki te īngoa kua kitea e ia ko Taitoko. I moemoeā he tāone me ōna iwi huhua, 10 eka hei papa tākaro ki te taha o te moana o Horowhenua; 10 eka anō, hei tūnga whare kura mō te Māori rāua ko te Pākehā; he papa ātea kei waenganui. Me whaka-tekaungia te whenua ka whakahoki mai i raro i ngā tuku whenua a te Karauna, ki ngā Māori mana hei whakaīngoa. Me rāhui te roto me ngā awa ki ngā Māori, mō ake tonu atu. Uaua rawa atu te wāwāhi o te poraka nei; kātahi ka whakaroaroahia e Paranihi ngā whakariterite mō te hoko, ka pōraruraru a Te Keepa ki ngā nama ki tana rōia kua taumaha rawa. Nō te otinga o te hoko i Hūrae 1887, ka riro i te utu a te kāwanatanga, ka whakakorehia te whakaaro o Te Keepa. I whai kē i te kaupapa papa kāinga a Paranihi kia itiiti te whenua ki ia tangata.

Ko ngā tikanga katoa o te wāwāhi i Horowhenua nā te Pākehā, kāore i eke ki tāna i whakaaro ai mō te whakakotahi i ngā iwi e rua. Ki te titiro a te Pākehā, rerekē ā te Māori tikanga. Kua mōhio kē a Te Keepa, ahakoa te tokomaha o te iwi, kia taea te kāwanatanga kore rawa. Nā runga i tēnei tirohanga, kua mārama noa atu ētehi, ka hua te kaupapa o Te Kotahitanga. Ka karangahia he hui mō ngā iwi katoa ki Pūtiki i te tau 1888. E whā katoa ngā hui i taua tau. Ka whakataungia me waiho ō rātou ake raruraru ki rahaki, me whakakotahi, kātahi ka tono kia āta whakaritea kia ōrite te mahi tahi a ngā iwi i oatihia i te Tiriti o Waitangi. Ka pōtingia a Te Keepa ki tētehi kaunihera Māori kia riro māna hei āta tirotiro ngā ture e pā ana ki te Māori, hei kawe whakaaro ki te kāwanatanga, hei whakahoki kōrero mai ki ngā iwi. Ka whakaaengia te kaupapa a Paranihi kia waiho mā ngā komiti hei tirotiro ngā hoko, ēngari me te kāti i te kāwanatanga kia kore e uru mai. I whakahēngia te Ture Whenua Māori 1888, i āhei ai te tangata ki te hoko i ōna whenua, ēngari i whakakorehia tēnei tikanga i te tau 1886.

Nō Maehe 1889, ka tū te hui a Te Kotahitanga ki Ōrākei. E 500 ngā tāngata me ētehi Pākehā i hui atu. Ko te pirimia ko Harry Atkinson, me te rōia matua me Frederick Whitaker ētehi. Mīharo rawa atu te kauwhau a Te Keepa. Ko te tino kaupapa o te hui, e kī ana ia, ko te whakahuihui i ngā iwi katoa kia kotahi, ēngari kia waiho te Māori i runga i tōna whakaaro kotahi. Kia whakaturengia te Tiriti o Waitangi i runga i te ōrite o te noho me te ōrite o ngā mana. I whakaparahakotia e te kāwanatanga te kōrero mō te whakaōrite.

I te tau 1890, ka tautohetohe a Te Keepa ki ngā tama a tana hoa tāwhai i mua, a Kāwana Hūnia, mō te mana me ngā hua o te whenua o Mua-ūpoko i Horowhenua i wāwāhia i te tau 1886. Ko tā Te Keepa, nā rāua ko Hūnia te whenua i hoko i runga i te ture kaitiaki, ka whakautua e tētehi o ngā tama a Hūnia, e Wārena, he mea koha kē ki a rātou i runga i tō rātou rangatiratanga. I kino ai te tautohetohe nei nā ngā whakapōrearea a te Pākehā. Kātahi te minita mō ngā whenua, a John McKenzie, ka hoko i tētehi whenua rahi tonu hei pāmu mā te kāwanatanga; ka mutu, ka utaina atu e te rōia nanakia a Te Keepa, e Te Pura (Walter Buller), tētehi mōkete ki runga i te whenua, hei utu mōna. Kātahi ka haere ngā momo hui katoa. Tuatahi ki te Kōti Matua (Supreme Court), hoki atu hoki mai. Ka tōia haeretia e ngā komiti Pāremata, e ngā whakawhitiwhiti kōrero i te Whare Pāremata, i te pire Pāremata. Tau rawa atu ki te kōmihana roera o te tau 1896. Ko te mutunga iho kua pū te ruha o te ruānuku rā, kua memeha te wairua, kua pau ngā moni.

Ka mate a Te Keepa Te Rangihiwinui i Pūtiki i te 15 o Āperire 1898, ka tanumia ki reira i te 24 o Āperire. Ko tana ōhākī i pēnei: 'Aua e hoko whenua; puritia ngā pitopito whenua hei waiū mō te iwi Māori.' Nō muri i a ia ka riro nā tana tamāhine, nā Wiki Taitoko, te iwi i ārahi.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Anthony Dreaver. 'Te Rangihiwinui, Te Keepa', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1t64/te-rangihiwinui-te-keepa (accessed 21 October 2019)