Kōrero: Waka

Whārangi 1. Ngā takenga i Te Moananui-a-Kiwa

Ngā whakaahua

Te whakahirahira o ngā tikanga

E takea mai ana te mana o te waka i ngā whakaterenga maha o nehe i tūhonotia ai a Hawaiki ki a Aotearoa. Nā te tipuna a Māui i hōrapa mā runga waka me te hī ake i Te Ika-a-Māui. Ko tōna waka ko Te Waka-a-Māui. Nō muri mai ka tūhuratia tēnei motu e Kupe mā runga waka. Nā tōna wahine a Kuramārōtini i tapa a Aotearoa.

Kei ia iwi ā rātou kōrero tuku iho mō te uranga mai o ngā waka tīpuna ki ngā tauranga waka nui whakaharahara. I ēnei rā, ka whakapapa mai te Māori i ngā tīpuna o ēnei waka heke iho ki ngā rangatira o ngā iwi me ngā hapū.

Ngā auaha tōmua

Kīhai i te mōhiotia ngā meka mō te hekenga waka, heoi kei te āhua o te hanga o ngā waka o ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa ētahi whakautu e takoto ana. I rerekē te hanga o ia waka i runga i ngā rauemi i whakamahia, me te kaupapa i tāraia te waka. Ka pahure ngā rau tau ka puāwai he waka kē i te tāpiritanga o te ama. Ka tāpirihia ngā papa rākau ki ngā niao hei whakapiki i te waka ki runga ake i te wai e mārō ai tōna rere.

Ngā rā me ngā hourua

Nā te whakatūtanga o ngā rā ki ngā waka ka tere ake, ka tawhiti ake ngā wāhi e taea ai e te waka. Nāwai, ka herea tahitia ngā hiwi e rua kia hua ko te waka hourua. He maha ngā tāngata i kawea e ēnei waka i ngā ara roa o te moana.

Ngā hourua o Aotearoa

Kāore i kore i whakaterehia ngā waka tīpuna mai i Hawaiki. Whāia he maha ngā ō kai me ngā inu i mauria e ēnei waka, ka mutu i taea te moe ki runga i te waka. Nō ngā whakaterenga o nāianei ka kitea e rua ki te toru wiki te tawhiti atu o te haere i Rarotonga ki Aotearoa. Ko te nuinga o ngā waka tīpuna o te Māori he waka ama, he hourua rānei.

I te haerenga mai o Abel Tasman ki Aotearoa i te tau 1642 ka kite a ia i ētahi waka hourua. Kei ngā kōrero o te tohungatā a Kuki i te tau 1769, a Sydney Parker, me ngā kōrero a tōna tohunga pūtaiao Tiamana a Johann Reinhold Forster i tana hokinga mai i 1773, ngā whakamārama anō mō ngā waka ama Māori.

E ai ki ngā kōrero a ngā tohunga aromātai iwi o te rau tau 1800, i whakamahia ngā hourua mō te hī ika. Engari kāore rātou i mōhio mēnā i haere tawhiti ēnei waka. I te wā o Kuki, he tokoiti noa iho ngā hourua ki Te Ika-a-Māui, heoi he maha ki Te Wai Pounamu. Nō te rau tau ka taha kua kore e whakamahia ngā hourua – i tū tēnei āhuatanga ki Te Ika-a-Māui i te tuatahi. Ko ngā tauira whakamutunga i kitea o tēnei tūmomo waka, ko ngā hiwi e rua i whiria tahitia. Heoi, ehara ēnei i te hourua tūturu. Kia taka rā anō mai ki ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau 1990 ka whakaorangia anō ngā waka hourua i te hahautanga mai o Te Aurere, nō Te Tai Tokerau. Nō konā anō ka whakamāuitia ake ngā tikanga whakatere waka.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Hoturoa Barclay-Kerr, 'Waka - Ngā takenga i Te Moananui-a-Kiwa', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/waka/page-1 (accessed 19 August 2018)

Story by Hoturoa Barclay-Kerr, published 12 Jun 2006