Kōrero: Ngā pakanga o Aotearoa

Whārangi 11. Te ao i muri mai

Ngā whakaahua

Ngā Mate

Kāre he tātai tōtika hei whakaatu i te rahi o te tangata i mate ki ngā pakanga o Aotearoa. E ai ki te kairangahau ki a James Cowan neke atu i te 500 ngā hoia nō Ingarangi me Niu Tīreni i mate, ā, tata ki te 250 ngā kūpapa Māori i mate. He tino uaua ake te mōhio ki te rahi o te hoariri i mate. E ai ki a Cowan 2,000 i mate. He parekura nui ki te taupori Māori e noho ana ki raro i te 80,000 te matenga o ēnei tāne taiohi.

He rahi te whenua o te Māori i pakanga ki te Karauna i riro atu. Nā te ture New Zealand Settlements Act 1863 me ētahi atu ture, tata ki te kotahi miriona heketea (me ngā whenua i whakahokia i muri) i raupatuhia e te Karauna ki roto o Taranaki, Waikato, Tāmaki ki te Tonga, Te Moana a Toi-te-Huatahi me Tūranga-nui-a-Kiwa. I te nuinga o te wā kāre i tōtika ngā whakaritenga kia mōhiotia nō tēhea hapū ngā whenua i riro.

Ngā maumaharatanga Māori

I maumaharatia e te hapori Māori ngā pakanga o Niu Tīreni. Ko ngā iwi i pakanga ki te Karauna, i tino raru i ngā mahi raupatu whenua, te hunga i pāpouri, ā, i ētahi wā ka pūkawa. I kitea tēnei āhuatanga i te kore uru atu o ngā Māori o Taranaki rāua ko Waikato ki te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao.

E maumaharatia ana e ngā kūpapa Māori i whawhai ki te taha o te Karauna me ngā Māori i whawhai ki te Karauna ngā hītori o ngā pakanga, ahakoa roa te wā kua hipa.

Ngā maumaharatanga Pākehā

Kāre hoki te Pākehā i ngana kia maumaharatia ngā pakanga ki Niu Tīreni. Tokoiti ngā tohu maumaharatanga mō ngā pakanga, kia tae rā anō ki te rautau 20, kātahi ka whakatūria te nuinga hei tohu maumaharatanga mō te huri tau 50. Ko ētahi tohu maumaharatanga i whakamahia hei āki i te tangata kia uru atu ki te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao, mā te whakaatu i te tauira o te tāne i whawhai mo te Emepaea o Ingarangi.

I ngā tau 1920 ko ngā puka hītori e rua o James Cowan, te tuatahitanga o ngā korero hītori, i mārama te whakaatu i ngā korero hihiko mo ngā pakanga. Ko te wawata o Cowan kia hāngai ngā pakanga nei ki te tuakiri o te whenua. Ka noho ngā whakaaro o Cowan hei aronga nui mā Rudall Hayward i āna whakahaere i te whitiāhua Rewi’s last stand (1925 kore oro, 1940 whai oro). 

Te Aranga mai i 1987

Nā te pukapuka hītori a te kairangahau a James Belich i te tau 1987 me te hōtaka pouaka whakaata i whakaara ake ngā whakaaro mō ngā Pakanga o Niu Tīreni. I whakaaturia e Belich te tohungatanga o te Māori ki te hanga rautaki whawhai i tata hinga ai te Pirinihi. I tāngia ngā pukapuka hāngai ki ngā pakanga, ko ētahi he korero pūrākau, ko ētahi he puka hītori. I whakanuia te rautau o te pakanga ki roto o Taranaki i tētahi kitenga whakahirahira i te whare taonga o Puke Ariki i te tau 2011.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Danny Keenan, 'Ngā pakanga o Aotearoa - Te ao i muri mai', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-pakanga-o-aotearoa/page-11 (accessed 26 May 2019)

Story by Danny Keenan, published 20 Jun 2012, reviewed & revised 8 Feb 2017