Kōrero: Kapa Haka

Whārangi 2. Ngā kapa haka o te rautau 1800

Ngā whakaahua

Ngā urupare a ngā mihinare

Mai anō i te taenga mai o ngā mihinare i te rautau 1800 ka ngana rātou ki te whakakore i te haka me ngā tū āhua o te ahurea Māori i tukituki ki tō rātou ake whakapono. Kātahi ka aukati te minita a Henry Williams (o te Rōpū Mihinare) i ngā tikanga Māori pērā i te waiata me te haka. Kātahi ka whakatika ngā mihinare ki te mokonaha i ngā haka me ngā mōteatea, ā, ka whakawaiatatia atu ki ngā rangi a te Pākehā.

Nō te pokapū o te rautau 1800 e taunga ana te Māori ki ngā rangi waiata hīmene. Kua kapo anō i ngā waiata a te Pākehā hei kīnaki atu i ā rātou waiata. I te tau 1871 ko te tautiaki a Kīngi Tāwhiao tērā e waiata ana i te waiata Māori ki te rangi Pākehā.

Te whakangahau tūruhi

Nō te tekau tau 1860 ka puea ake ngā rōpū (kōnehete) kapa haka tuatahi, otirā i Rotorua te mahi a ēnei rōpū, inā hoki he wāhi mīharo rawa ki te hunga tāpoi. I reira waiata ai ngā Māori i ā rātou waiata rangi Pākehā, he kawa hoki ki te taringa Pākehā te whakarongo ki ngā rangi mōteatea. Heoi anō ko te mahi tērā a ngā Māori, he waiata i ōna ake waiata me te whakamahi i te tino rangi Pākehā o te wā.

Whiti atu ki tāwāhi

Heoi ka rangona tonutia te haka me ngā mōteatea i roto i te horopaki o ēnei tūmomo rōpū. Mawhiti atu ai ēnei kapa ki tāwāhi, ā, ka whakamahi i te āhuatanga Māori me te āhuatanga Pākehā hei ngahautanga atu. I haka tonu te rōpū a Tākuta McGauran e kīia ana ko ‘Troupe of Warrior Chiefs, Wives and Children’. I tū tērā Whakaari ki Poihākena me Poipiripi i te tau 1862, ā, nō te tau i muri mai  ka tau atu ki Peretānia.

Te pōhiri i te Whare Ariki o Peretānia

Ko ngā kotuku awe nui, otirā ngā kāhui ariki o Peretānia ka pōhiritia. Otirā nō te tau 1869 ka tau tuatahi mai te whare o Peretānia, arā, te mokopuna a Kuini Wikitōria, a Pirini Albert. I taua wā e mura tonu ana ngā pakanga whenua o Aotearoa. Nō te paenga ki te tumu i Te Whanganui-a-Tara, ka hakaina atu e ngā Māori. I kī te niupepa a Wellington Independent, ‘Ka pakaru mai te ihi me te wana i ngā Māori, ka pūkana, ka whētero, ka haka, ka piua haeretia ngā rākau ānō nei he kurī kai tāwhao. Ko ēnei tangi tīoro he mihi whakatau kē. E mihi atu ana rātou ki tō rātou Tiuka kia haramai.’1

Ngā kapa haka i roto i ngā whakahaere Māori

Ka ora tonu te kapa haka i roto i ngā whakahaere katoa a ngā Māori pērā i te Hāhi Ringatū, te Kīngitanga me te kāinga o Te Whiti-o-Rongomai rāua ko Tohu Kākahi a Parihaka.

Ngā tira haere rongonui

Taka mai ki te rautau 1900 kua taunga kē ngā kapa haka hei kanohi mō Aotearoa. Ko te kaiārahi i ngā tūruhi ko Mākereti Papakura o Te Arawa tētahi i taki i tōna kapa ki Ahitereiria me Ingarangi i ngā tau o 1910-11. Ko te ariki o Tainui ko Te Puea Hērangi tērā i kumeroa i a Te Pou o Mangatāwhiri ki te mahi moni mō te whakatūnga o te marae o Tūrangawaewae hei manapou mō Te Kīngitanga.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Wellington Independent, 13 Paengawhāwhā 1869, p. 3, http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&cl=search&d=WI18690413.2.11.1 (i tirohia i te 10 Huitanguru 2014). Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Valance Smith, 'Kapa Haka - Ngā kapa haka o te rautau 1800', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/kapa-haka/page-2 (accessed 26 August 2019)

Story by Valance Smith, published 22 Oct 2014