Kōrero: Kapa Haka

Whārangi 4. Ngā rōpū tāone me ngā whakataetae

Ngā whakaahua

Te kapa haka me te noho tāone

Mai i te tekau tau 1930 ka mātotoru ake te iwi Māori, ā, ka tīmata te neke ki te tāone noho ai. Ka whakatūria ngā kapa haka hei taura here mō ērā e noho manene ana ki ngā tāone. Ka haere tonu ngā kaupapa ki te kohi moni me te whakangahau tūruhi, engari ko tōna kaupapa matua ko te noho hei waka kawe i te reo Māori me ngā tikanga Māori.

He toa whakaihuwaka

I arataki a Ngāpō rāua ko Pīmia Wehi i ā rāua kapa kia toa ki te whakataetae kapa haka o te motu – e rua ngā toanga o te kapa haka o Waihīrere, e whā mō te kapa ā-iwi o Te Waka Huia. Nā ō rāua rōpū i whakakanohi te motu ki ngā taiopenga e whā o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa; ki ngā Taumāhekeheke o te Ao ki Seoul i te tau 1988; me te Whakataetae o Te Kotahitanga o Peretānia ki Wikitōria i Kānata i te tau 1994. Kia whai pūtea ai ōna kaihaka, tū ai a Te Waka Huia ki Tāmaki Paenga Hira mō te 14 tau.

Ngā tumu herenga waka

Mai i te tekau tau 1930 ka kitea te aranga mai o ngā kapa ā-iwi (nō ngā hau e whā). I te tau 1936 ka whakatūria te kapa haka o Ngāti Pōneke ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara. I te tau 1969 nā Pita Sharples i whakatū Te Rōpū Manutaki ki Tāmaki-makaurau. I tērā wā hoki ka hangaia e Kīngi Īhaka te Karapu Māori o te Hāhi Mihinare Maōri o Tāmaki-makaurau. Nō ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau 1970 ka waihangatia Te Kotahitanga o Waitaha ki Ōtautahi. Arā tonu ngā kapa haka i puea ake i ngā iwi, pērā i te rōpū a Tuini Ngāwai, a Te Hokowhitu-a-Tū, ki Tokomaru i te tau 1939,  me Waihīrere i te tau 1951. 

Ngā rangi Pākehā

He rite tonu te waiata o ēnei kapa i ngā waiata whai rangi Pākehā, pērā i a ‘Que sera, sera’ me ‘Don’t be cruel’. Ahakoa he tūturu reo Māori ēnei kaiako, ka whakamahi rātou i ngā rangi Pākehā kia tō mai i te rangatahi ki roto ki te ahurea Māori. Ko Tuini Ngāwai tētahi i whakamahi i ngā rangi Pākehā kia are ā-taringa mai te taiohi ki ngā tohutohu o āna waiata. Nāwai rā ka kīnakitia e Dalvanius Prime tētahi o ngā titonga a Ngoi Pēwhairangi ki te rangi ‘hip hop’. I pīrangi nuitia te waiata a te Karapu Māori o Pātea i hua ake, arā, a ‘Poi e’, i te tau 1983.

Ngā whakataetae ōkawa

Nō te tipu haere o ngā kapa haka hau kāinga ka hua ake ngā whakataetae ā-rohe, ā-motu hoki. He pai ake tēnei mahi i ngā pakanga ā-iwi i ngā rautau ki mua. I tū tētahi o ngā whakataetae tuatahi i te tau 1934 ki Waitangi, i reira tukuna ai te taonga ki te toa mō te waiata, te whaikōrero me te haka.

Te Hīra o Taumaunu

I muri tata i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao tīmata ai ngā whakataetae ā-rohe ki Tūranga. Mai i te tau 1953, ko te Hīra o Taumaunu te taonga whakaihuwaka, he tohu mahara ki te kaitito o Te Aitanga-a-Hauiti, ki a Karaitiana Taumaunu. He kaha te wairua whakataetae. I ngā wā parakitihi ka tukuna ngā pūrahorua ki te mātaki i ngā mahi a te hoariri.

Ka tae ki Amerika

I te tau 1963 e noho ana a Te Arohanui o Te Iwi Māori (e 150 ngā kaihaka o te kapa haka) ki te pā o ngā Mōmona ki Kākaramea ki Kirikiriroa. Mai i reira ka rere atu rātou ki Laie ki Hawaii; ki te whakaoti i te hanganga o te kāinga Māori ki te Pūtahi Ahurea o Poronīhia. Kātahi ka tau atu te tira ki Karipōnia me Pā Tote, ki reira whakaatu ai i ā rātou haka ki te hōtaka makau o Amerika, arā, ko te Danny Kaye show. Nā te momoho o tērā haerenga, ka haere te Kamupene Māori o Aotearoa ki Amerika i ngā tau 1972-73 engari kāore i kake ki ngā taumata o tērā o ngā haerenga.

Te taiopenga o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa

Nō te tau 1972, 13 ngā whakataetae ā-rohe. I tērā tau ka tū te Taiopenga o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa ki Whakarewarewa ki Rotorua, i kitea ai te taumāhekeheke o ngā toa ā-rohe o te motu. Ko te aronga tuatahi i tū ai ngā whakataetae he whakapakari i te taumata o te whakangahau tūruhi, engari ka ara te kaupapa nui ake tērā ki te whakarauora i te reo Māori me te ahurea Māori. Nō te tau 1983 ka huaina kētia ko te Taiopenga Toi Whakaari Māori, ā, ka peia atu ngā iwi o ngā moutere.

Te Matatini

I te tau 204 ka tapaina anō te ingoa hou o Te Matatini ki te whakataetae kapa haka ā-motu. I hua ake te ingoa ‘matatini’ i a Ahorangi Te Wharehuia Milroy, he kupu whakarite anō ki te hua mātinitini. Mai anō i tōna tīmatanga ko Te Matatini te taiopenga kapa haka nui a te Māori. Neke atu i te 30,000 ngā kaimātaki, kō atu i te 40 ngā kapa haka toa o ngā rohe (takiwā o te 2,000 kaihaka).

E ono ngā wāhanga – ko te whakaeke, ko te mōteatea, ko te poi, ko te waiata-ā-ringa, ko te haka me te whakawātea. Kei ngā rōpū te mana ki te mahi waiata tira. Arā atu anō ngā wāhanga toa, arā, mō te manukura wahine me te manukura tāne, mō te kākahu, mō te kairangi o te reo, mō te titonga waiata hou, me ngā toa mō te wāhanga poi, haka, waiata-ā-ringa hoki.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Valance Smith, 'Kapa Haka - Ngā rōpū tāone me ngā whakataetae', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/kapa-haka/page-4 (accessed 19 July 2019)

Story by Valance Smith, published 22 Oct 2014