Kōrero: Whakairo

Whārangi 5. Te whakairo mai i te rautau 1800

Ngā whakaahua

He nui ngā tukitukinga o te ao Pākehā i te rewanga o te rautau 1800. Ko tētahi pānga nui ko te pū, i hinga ai te mātinitini i ngā pakanga maupū a ngā iwi. Kātahi ka tipia haurarotia ngā iwi kore pū. Ko te pātaka whakairo o Te Kaha tētahi taonga i turakina, kātahi ka hūnaia e Te Whānau-a-Apanui i ngā marau maupū o Ngāpuhi. Ka ōrua mai ko te ngaronga o ngā wānanga whakairo o te raki, o Hauraki me Tāmaki-makaurau. Nāwai i hē kātahi ka hē rawa atu i ngā pakanga whenua ki te Karauna. Hei tauira, ka tahuna e te Karauna ngā waka kotahi mano ki te moana o Manukau i mua i te huakitanga o Waikato.

Te Hau-ki-Tūranga

Nō ngā tau tata i muri i te hainatanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi ka whakairotia te whare whakairo a Raharuhi Rukupō, a Te Hau-ki-Tūranga. Ā, nō ngā tau tōmua o 2000 ka oti i a Te Papa Tongarewa ngā tapitapi mōna. He tauira anō tēnei mō te tauwhirowhiro mai i ngā waka taua me ngā pātaka ki ngā whare whakairo rangatira hei tohu i te mana o te iwi. He whetū taratahi a Te Hau-ki-Tūranga, koia te whare whakairo tawhito e tū tonu ana, ka mutu, ka kitea te tohungatanga o Rukupō ki te whakairo. Inā tōna tohungatanga ki te mau i ngā whao maitai, ka hua ake ngā whakairo hou kīanō anō i kitea i tērā wā. E ai ki a Āpirana Ngata, ko te ‘puāwaitanga o te toi Māori’ 1 i te whakatūnga o te wānanga whakairo e Ngata i te tau 1926, ka noho taua whare hei tauira mā ngā mahi a te kura whakairo.

Kāore he tohu mana i tua atu i a Te Hau-ki-Tūranga, hei whakaatu i te tirohanga ao Māori a te tohunga Māori ki ngā tikanga tuku iho a tōna iwi. I tino wehi a Rukupō ki te whakaekenga mai o te Pākehā, ā, tae rawa ake ki te tau 1860, kua turakina tōna ao i runga i te raupatutanga o Te Hau-ki-Tūranga e te kāwanatanga.

Ngā tohu ngāwari

I ngā rohe i taka i raro i te raupatu, pērā i te Tai Tokerau, i Taranaki me Waikato, ka korehāhā te mahi whakairo. I Te Tai Rāwhiti, ka haere tonu te mahi whakairo i raro i ngā tohunga pērā i a Hōne Ngātoto, ahakoa te whakawainga e ngā tūāhua Pākehā. Nō te tuwheratanga o te Māori ki te Rongopai me ngā tikanga Pākehā, ka papahoro haere ngā tohu o te ahurea Māori. Kātahi ka ōrite te whakairo ki te pukapuka, arā, ka whakamauria atu he taiaha ki ngā toa, ā, ka whakairotia te aroarowhenua i raro i tētahi rangatira hei tohu i tōna rohe.

Ngā whare tikanga maha

I te takiwā mai i te tekau tau 1860 ki te tau 1920, ka whakaarotia he iwi mate te iwi Māori. Nā ngā mautohe i roto i te pāremata, ka whakatūria ngā wharenui hei whare karakia, hei whare hui, hei whare moe hoki, otirā, kia āhei ai te hapori ki te whiriwhiri i ngā take o te wā. Heoi, kāore i nui te wā ki te tangata, e āhei ai te whakapau kaha ki te whakatū whare whakairo.

Ngā whare i tuhia ki te waipani

Kātahi ka maiangi te wairua auaha, ā, ka tīmata te tuhi o ngā whakairo ki te peita. Ko ētahi o ēnei whare ka whai pānga ki te irāmutu a Rukupō, ki a Te Kooti Arikirangi Te Tūruki, he poropiti, he kaingārahu. I tauiratia mai ēnei whare i ngā huatau taiao o ngā puka whakaahua i tukuna e ngā mihinare ki ngā Māori. Ka whakaurua te tukutuku,  te kōwhaiwhai me te whakairo ki ngā whare nei. E ai ki ngā hinengaro pupuru tikanga tuku iho pērā i a Ngata, e waimehatia ana te toi whakairo. Heoi ki te tiro whānuitia te noho a te iwi i tērā wā, he tohu rangatira tonu ngā whakanikotanga hou. Ko Rongopai i Manutūkē, ko Te Poho-o-Materoa i Awapuni (he pātata ēnei whare ki Tūranganui-a-Kiwa) ngā wharenui ka kaha kitea ēnei momo whakairo.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Tohutoro Deidre S. Brown, ‘Te Hau ki Turanga.’ Journal of the Polynesian Society 105, no. 1 (1996), p. 21. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Brett Graham, 'Whakairo - Te whakairo mai i te rautau 1800', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/whakairo/page-5 (accessed 19 October 2019)

Story by Brett Graham, published 22 Oct 2014