Kōrero: Whakairo

Whārangi 7. Te whakairo ki ngā taone

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Ko Hōne Taiapa

Nā te maunutanga nui o te iwi Māori mai i te taiwhenua i muri i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao, e rua ngā huarahi matua o te whakairo ka whāia e ngā pia. Ko ētahi ka ū tonu ki te huarahi o mua. Ka mutu he pērā anō tā Hōne Taiapa, te teina o tērā o ngā kaiwhakairo a Pine Taiapa, ka ū tonu rā ki te ngako o tuawhakarere. I whakatairanga anō ia i ngā mahi tārei taonga o te toi whakairo, ā, kāore i tino whakaakona ngā kura huna.

Te kura toi

Ko te urunga tērā o ētahi o ngā pia ki ngā kura auraki me ngā whare takiura kia whai wāhi i te tohu toi ki te tau tuatoru rā anō. Kātahi ka kite ēnei o ngā pia i te pōhēhē a te nuinga kua nehua kētia ngā toi Māori i te taha o ngā tīpuna Māori. Ko te heitara a ngā mātanga me te ringatohu o te Taiwhanga Toi o Aotearoa, arā, ‘kāore anō kia kitea tētahi tohunga toi Māori whai mana. Kua pērā rawa te kaha o te noho whakawaimeha a te Māori, waimeha anō hoki ngā toi o ana tīpuna, kōpani mai tōna ahurea ki tērā o tāna hoa Pākehā.’1

Ko Manaaki Wilson tētahi o ngā kaitoi Māori i whakangungu ki te Kura Toi o Elam. Ki tāna ‘kāore he take o te whakaora i tērā mea i te toi Māori … e tīkina ana te tauira o mua atu i te tau 1840, hei tuarua rānei i te hē, e tikina noatia atu ana he tauira nō te tauira i hangaia ai i te wā i a Ngata mā.’2

Ngā marae noho tāone

Nō te tekau tau 1970 he mātotoru tonu te momotu a te iwi Māori ki ngā tāone, ā, ka puta ngā whakahau mō ētahi marae tāone. Ko te whare whakairo i Hoani Waititi ki Te Atatū tētahi o ngā marae hou ka noho hei tohu i te ao tūroa.

Ko Cliff Whiting

Nā te tohunga whakairo nā Pine Taiapa i akiaki tōna uri a Cliff Whiting (nō Te Whānau-a-Apanui) kia rukuhia te toi whakairo ki tōna rētōtanga. Kua ārahi a Whiting i ngā whakahounga maha e pā ana ki ngā wharenui o runga marae tae atu ki ngā marae tāone. Nāna i arataki te whakairotanga o Te Kupenga o te Mātauranga ki te Kura Takiura o Te Papaioea. I te whakatuwheratanga i te tau 1979, ka noho ko tēnei te whare tuatahi kia hangaia ki tētahi kura takiura.

Ko Maru Kaitātea, ki Kaikōura

Ko Whiting tētahi anō o te hunga auaha, Māori mai, Pākehā mai, i whai wāhi ki te hanganga o te wharenui o Maru Kaitātea ki te marae o Takahanga ki Kaikōura. Nō te tau 2001 ka tuwhera te marae. E ai ki te hau kāinga, ki a Ngāti Kurī, mai anō rātou e noho tahi ana me te Pākehā. ‘I mahi tahi te iwi whānui kia whai wāhi te katoa ki te marae. Ko tēnei te marae tuatahi kia pērā.’3

Ko Te Hono ki Hawaiki, ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara

Ko Te Hono ki Hawaiki te whare whakairo o Rongomaraeroa, te marae o Te Papa Tongarewa. He nui ngā takumekume i tōna whakatuwheratanga i te tau 1997. Nā te pou monemone haere o ngā rākau māori, ka whakamahi a Cliff Whiting i ngā papa MDF mō ngā whakairo o te marae, ā nō muri mai ka tāia ki ngā tae hirahira piakano. Ko ngā whakairo kei te pou mataaho e pā ana ki ngā kōrero tuku iho a te Māori, ko tōna tuarongo e pā ana ki te hunga manene e noho kāinga nei ki Aotearoa.

Ngā waka taua hou

I ngā wā o ngā whakahōutanga, ka ōrua mai he tapitapinga o te mahi tārai waka. Ko te waka taua anō tētahi tohu o te mana o te iwi. Nā te maruwehi o Te Puea Hērangi ki te waka taua o Kīngi Mahuta, ki a Tāheretikitiki, e tere ana i runga i te au o Waikato, ka whakaterea e ia a Piri Poutapu mā ki te hahau mai i ngā waka hei tohu mō ngā waka tīpuna i heke mai i Hawaiki.

E whitu ngā waka i tūmanakotia mō te rautau o te Tiriti o Waitangi i te tau 1940, engari e rua noa iho ngā waka i tāraia (ko Aotea me Tākitimu), ā, ka whakahoutia mai a Te Winika. I Kerikeri, ka tāraia e Poutapu rāua ko Pita Hepera a Ngātokimatawhaorua. Ka ora anō mai te waka whakairo i te maumaharatanga 150 tau o te Tiriti o Waitangi i te tau 1990. 23 ngā waka whakairo o te kahupapa i taua rangi. 

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Stewart Bell Maclennan, ‘Art in New Zealand – section II: survey, trends, and influences, 1938 to present.’ In An encyclopaedia of New Zealand, edited by A. H. McLintock. Vol. 1. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Government Printer, 1966, p. 87. Back
  2. Damian Skinner, The carver and the artist: Māori art in the twentieth century. Tāmakimakaurau: Auckland University Press, 2008, p. 12. Back
  3. Tohutoro Adrienne Rewi, ‘Takahanga – a place by the sea.’ Te Karaka, http://www.mauri.co.nz/Blog/takahanga-a-place-by-the-sea (pātengi raraunga 15 Hānuere 2014). Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Brett Graham, 'Whakairo - Te whakairo ki ngā taone', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/whakairo/page-7 (accessed 16 December 2019)

He kōrero nā Brett Graham, i tāngia i te 22 Oct 2014