Kōrero: Whakairo

Whārangi 2. Ngā rākau, ngā rawa me ngā tikanga mahi

Ngā whakaahua

Ngā tohu papanga whakairo

Ko ngā rākau whakairo he āria nō Tāne. I mua i te tua i te rākau pērā i te tōtara, ka karakiatia. Kia huaina te rākau hei poupou, ka mahia, ka tāreia, ā, kua tangata, he tipuna anō. Ko ngā kanohi, ka hangaia ki te angaanga pāua o te moana. Ko ngā tā he kōkōwai, otirā, he tohu rangatira, he tohu whai mana mō te tāne, me te wahine.

He matatoru

I ōna rangahau ki ngā kaiwhakairo o Ngāti Tarāwhai, ka whakamahuki a Roger Neich i ngā kounga matatoru ka pupū ake i ngā whakairo a ngā mātanga o mua: ‘Ka koropupū ake ngā koru, ka kōkuhutia ngā māngai e ngā ringaringa mai muri, ā, he maha ngā koki ka tūtaki ai ngā whakairo maha ki te mata … Ka paiherehere ngā whakairo tētahi ki tētahi.’1

Ngā toki me ngā uhi

Ko ngā whao o te kete a te kaiwhakairo he toki, he uhi. Ko tētahi atu taputapu nui ko te tā, he mea hanga ki te rākau, ki te parāoa rānei. Mai i mua, e rite tonu ana tōna hanga. Ko te mahi a te toki (he roa te kakau, ka anganui ki te taha matau) he hahau i te āhua o te whakairo, ā, mā ngā uhi hei tapahi haere. I ngā wā o mua, ka hangaia ēnei whao ki te kōhatu me te pounamu. I uru anō te mauri me te tapu o ngā kaiwhakairo ki roto ki ā rātou whao, ā, kore rawa e naomia e tētahi kia whakaae rā anō te kaipupuri.

Ngā whao maitai

I ngā pānga tuatahi ki te Pākehā, ka whāwhāhia ngā whao maitai. He koi ake te maitai i te kōhatu me te pounamu, ā, mau tonu iho tōna aneane. Ko ngā nēra, ngā pāraharaha kāho, ngā pēneti me ngā wiri hanga whare, ka hoahoatia mō te mahi whakairo.

Te toi heu

Ka mahi tonu te kaiwhakairo Māori i te papa rākau kotahi. Kāore i tāpirihia he māhunga, he waewae rānei, hahaungia tonu mai i te papa kotahi. Nā reira ka heua e te kaiwhakairo Māori ōna pou, tauihu, maihi, aha rānei.

Ngā kawa o te whakairo

Ka rāhuitia ngā mahi, inā hoki he mahi tapu. Ka taea e te kaiwhakairo te ūkui atu ngā maramara engari kore rawa e pūhia mā te waha. Kāore hoki e tahu kai me ngā maramara kei tāmaoa ngā tapu i te kai.

Ngā waka whakairo

I te haerenga o Augustus Earle ki Pēwhairangi i te tau 1827 ka mea ia: ‘E takoto ana ngā waka taua ki te kawe i te taua; ahakoa kotahi tonu tōna kaupapa, inā kē te huhua o ngā whakairo o runga. Ko te tātai rangatira anake ka mahi i ēnei mahi, heoi he mahi ihu oneone tonu … Inā te ātaahua o te mahi tahi a te kaiwhakairo, te kaitā, a te kaitūhono, a te kaihanga rā kia pae ngā mahi a tēnā, a tēnā. Ko ētahi waka, kei tua i te 80 putu te roa, ā, kapi katoa i ngā whakairo me ngā whakanikoniko.2

Te tikanga whakairo

He mahi uaua tonu te whakairo. Ka whakairotia a runga, me ngā taha o te rākau, kātahi ka hangaia mai tōna āhua. I ngā wā o mua kīhai i tuhia he mahere i   tēnei wāhanga o te whakairo, ā, ka riro mā te hinengaro o te kaiwhakairo hei whakatinana. Kātahi ka mau ki te whao me te tā, ā, ka noho i te taha o te whakairo ki te whakarākai i ngā momo wāhanga o te whakairo. Ko ngā mahinga nui pērā i te waka taua me te wharenui ka riro mā te tokomaha hei hāpai ngā whakairo, ki raro anō i te mana o te tohunga whakairo.

Ngā whakangungu ō mua

I ngā wā o mua, noho rawa ai te pia ki te wānanga i ngā mahi whakairo mō te 20 tau, e matatau ai ia ki ngā tūāhua katoa o te whakairo. Ki te hapa ia i roto i ngā karakia me ngā mahi hoki, he mate kei te haere.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Roger Neich, Carved histories: Rotorua Ngati Tarawhai woodcarving. Tāmakimakaurau: Auckland University Press, 2001, p. 162. Back
  2. Augustus Earle, A narrative of a nine months’ residence in New Zealand in 1827. Rānana: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, & Longman, 1832, p. 110. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Brett Graham, 'Whakairo - Ngā rākau, ngā rawa me ngā tikanga mahi', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/whakairo/page-2 (accessed 19 October 2019)

Story by Brett Graham, published 22 Oct 2014