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Whakairo – Māori carving

by Brett Graham

I te wā tuaukiuki, he rite tonu te whakairo Māori me ngā whakairo a Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Nāwai ka kukune ake tētahi whakairo anō. I te rau tau 1920 ka puāwai mai anō te whakairo Māori tūturu, ā, he tini ngā whare whakairo hōu i hangaia, puta noa i te motu.


Legendary origins of carving

Rukuhia te ata o te whakairo
Rukuhia te ata o te wānanga
Rukuhia te ata o te wharekura.
Whano, whano, hari mai te toki,
Haumi e, hui e, tāiki e!1

Te kōrero mō Ruatepupuke

E ai ki nga kōrero o Te Tai Rāwhiti, i takea mai te whakairo i te tipuna nei a Ruatepupuke, te mokopuna a Tangaroa. Nā te pārekareka o tāna mokopuna ki te kaimoana, ka whaoa e Ruatepupuke he matau, ka kīia te ingoa ko Te Whatukura-o-Tangaroa. 

Heoi ka pukuriri a Tangaroa ki te whakamahinga o tōna ingoa, ka rapu utu. Nō te whakamātautanga o te tama a Ruatepupuke o Manuruhi i te matau, ka hopu ia i ngā ika nunui, engari kāore i whakahoki i te mātāika ki a Tangaroa. Kātahi ka tōia e Tangaroa a Manuruhi ki raro i te moana, ā, ka makaia hei tekoteko ki tōna whare a Hui-te-ana-nui.

Nō te kitenga e ngaro ana tana tama, ka hīkina ōna tapuwae ka kitea e taki ana ki te wai, ā, ka rukuhia te moana. Nāwai, ā, ka tūpono ki te kāinga o Tangaroa, me te whare a Hui-te-ana-nui. Ehara! E kōrero ana, e waiata ana ngā poupou o te whare ki a rātou anō. Nō te uinga a Ruatepupuke kei hea tana tama, ka whakahoki tētahi ngā poupou  arā kē a Manuruhi e tū tekoteko mai ana i te kōtihi o te whare.

Kātahi ka huna a Ruatepupuke i roto i te whare, ā, ka tiaki mō ngā ika kia warea e te moe, ā, ka tahuna te whare. I mua i te muranga o te whare, ka naomia tana tama, me ngā poupou o te mahau (he mū). Nā konei ka puea mai ngā whakairo tuatahi ki te ao mārama.

Nō muri, ka mauria mai e ngā uri o Ruatepupuke te toi whakairo mai i Hawaiki ki Aotearoa. Ka noho ko ēnei whakairo ngā tauira tuatahi mō te whare wānanga nui o Te Rāwheoro i whakatūria ai e Hingaangaroa ki Ūawa. Ko ngā pia rongonui o te kura ko Tūkākī rāua ko Iwirākau, ā, ka horapa i a rāua te kura whakairo ki Te Tai Rāwhiti, ki tua hoki o te paerangi.

Te hono ki Hawaiki

I runga i te kōrero mō Ruatepupuke ka kitea, he taonga tuku iho te whakairo mai i ngā atua ki ngā tīpuna. Ka tūtohu anō i takea mai te whakairo i Hawaiki kātahi ka mauria mai ki Aotearoa. Ā-reo, ā-hangarau nei, he ōrite te Māori me ngā iwi o Rarotonga, o Tahiti, o Nukuhiva me Hawaii, ā, he hononga tata tō ngā whakairo o reira ki ngā whakairo tawhito a te Māori. I whanake ake te whakairo Māori i te taunga haere ki ngā āhuatanga o te whenua hou. Nāwai ka puea ake te toi hei whakaata i ngā āhuatanga ake o Aotearoa.

Footnotes
    • Tohutoro Ranginui Walker, Tohunga whakairo: Paki Harrison: the story of a master carver. Tāmakimakaurau: Penguin, 2008, p. 190. Back

Carving materials and techniques

Ngā tohu papanga whakairo

Ko ngā rākau whakairo he āria nō Tāne. I mua i te tua i te rākau pērā i te tōtara, ka karakiatia. Kia huaina te rākau hei poupou, ka mahia, ka tāreia, ā, kua tangata, he tipuna anō. Ko ngā kanohi, ka hangaia ki te angaanga pāua o te moana. Ko ngā tā he kōkōwai, otirā, he tohu rangatira, he tohu whai mana mō te tāne, me te wahine.

He matatoru

I ōna rangahau ki ngā kaiwhakairo o Ngāti Tarāwhai, ka whakamahuki a Roger Neich i ngā kounga matatoru ka pupū ake i ngā whakairo a ngā mātanga o mua: ‘Ka koropupū ake ngā koru, ka kōkuhutia ngā māngai e ngā ringaringa mai muri, ā, he maha ngā koki ka tūtaki ai ngā whakairo maha ki te mata … Ka paiherehere ngā whakairo tētahi ki tētahi.’1

Ngā toki me ngā uhi

Ko ngā whao o te kete a te kaiwhakairo he toki, he uhi. Ko tētahi atu taputapu nui ko te tā, he mea hanga ki te rākau, ki te parāoa rānei. Mai i mua, e rite tonu ana tōna hanga. Ko te mahi a te toki (he roa te kakau, ka anganui ki te taha matau) he hahau i te āhua o te whakairo, ā, mā ngā uhi hei tapahi haere. I ngā wā o mua, ka hangaia ēnei whao ki te kōhatu me te pounamu. I uru anō te mauri me te tapu o ngā kaiwhakairo ki roto ki ā rātou whao, ā, kore rawa e naomia e tētahi kia whakaae rā anō te kaipupuri.

Ngā whao maitai

I ngā pānga tuatahi ki te Pākehā, ka whāwhāhia ngā whao maitai. He koi ake te maitai i te kōhatu me te pounamu, ā, mau tonu iho tōna aneane. Ko ngā nēra, ngā pāraharaha kāho, ngā pēneti me ngā wiri hanga whare, ka hoahoatia mō te mahi whakairo.

Te toi heu

Ka mahi tonu te kaiwhakairo Māori i te papa rākau kotahi. Kāore i tāpirihia he māhunga, he waewae rānei, hahaungia tonu mai i te papa kotahi. Nā reira ka heua e te kaiwhakairo Māori ōna pou, tauihu, maihi, aha rānei.

Ngā kawa o te whakairo

Ka rāhuitia ngā mahi, inā hoki he mahi tapu. Ka taea e te kaiwhakairo te ūkui atu ngā maramara engari kore rawa e pūhia mā te waha. Kāore hoki e tahu kai me ngā maramara kei tāmaoa ngā tapu i te kai.

Ngā waka whakairo

I te haerenga o Augustus Earle ki Pēwhairangi i te tau 1827 ka mea ia: ‘E takoto ana ngā waka taua ki te kawe i te taua; ahakoa kotahi tonu tōna kaupapa, inā kē te huhua o ngā whakairo o runga. Ko te tātai rangatira anake ka mahi i ēnei mahi, heoi he mahi ihu oneone tonu … Inā te ātaahua o te mahi tahi a te kaiwhakairo, te kaitā, a te kaitūhono, a te kaihanga rā kia pae ngā mahi a tēnā, a tēnā. Ko ētahi waka, kei tua i te 80 putu te roa, ā, kapi katoa i ngā whakairo me ngā whakanikoniko.2

Te tikanga whakairo

He mahi uaua tonu te whakairo. Ka whakairotia a runga, me ngā taha o te rākau, kātahi ka hangaia mai tōna āhua. I ngā wā o mua kīhai i tuhia he mahere i   tēnei wāhanga o te whakairo, ā, ka riro mā te hinengaro o te kaiwhakairo hei whakatinana. Kātahi ka mau ki te whao me te tā, ā, ka noho i te taha o te whakairo ki te whakarākai i ngā momo wāhanga o te whakairo. Ko ngā mahinga nui pērā i te waka taua me te wharenui ka riro mā te tokomaha hei hāpai ngā whakairo, ki raro anō i te mana o te tohunga whakairo.

Ngā whakangungu ō mua

I ngā wā o mua, noho rawa ai te pia ki te wānanga i ngā mahi whakairo mō te 20 tau, e matatau ai ia ki ngā tūāhua katoa o te whakairo. Ki te hapa ia i roto i ngā karakia me ngā mahi hoki, he mate kei te haere.

Footnotes
    • Roger Neich, Carved histories: Rotorua Ngati Tarawhai woodcarving. Tāmakimakaurau: Auckland University Press, 2001, p. 162. Back
    • Augustus Earle, A narrative of a nine months’ residence in New Zealand in 1827. Rānana: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, & Longman, 1832, p. 110. Back

Carving before 1500

Ngā tauira tōmua

Nā te hanehane o te rākau i ngā āki o te wā, he moroiti noa ngā whakairo rākau e ora ana mai i te ao kōhatu. Heoi e ora katoa ana ngā taonga kōhatu me ngā tāhei iwi moa, iwi tohorā, kōhatu, rei tohorā anō, anō ko te hanga ka kitea mai i te rāwhiti o Poronīhia. Arā atu ngā toki whakairo he ōrite ki te hanga o ngā toki hohou pū o Rarotonga me ngā moutere Ahitere.

Ngā whakairo o te panonitanga

I ēnei tau o te huringa o te āhua, ka urutau haere ngā mahi whakairo a te Māori ki te kāinga hou, me te mau anō o ētahi ngā hoahoa o ngā iwi Poronīhia. E tūtohu ana pea tēnei i ngā tauwhitiwhitinga i Hawaiki ki Aotearoa, me te taetae mai o ētahi atu tāngata ki konei.

He pare nō Kaitāia

I kitea tētahi taonga ukiuki,i,tūtata ki Kaitāia, i te tau 1920, ā, ka whakaarotia he pare. Heoi ko te āhua nei he hoahoa tuanui. Kei waenganui i te whakairo nei ko tētahi pākati taurite ki ērā i ngā moutere Ahitere. Nō te taenga mai ki konei, ka panonitia te māhunga kurī (o te tonga mā rāwhiti o Poronīhia), ki te ūpoko manaia. Ko te manaia nei me tōna raupapatanga, e awhitia nei ia e ngā manaia e rua, he tauira tōmua o te pare o muri i te tau 1500.

Ko Uenuku

Ko Uenuku te whakairo mana nui o ngā iwi o Tainui. He rite tonu ka whakarite e te tangata i ia ki ngā whakairo o te atua o Hawaii, ki a Kū. Tērā pea he mauri tēnei, he tauira rānei o te mauri i kawea mai i Hawaiki i runga i te waka o Tainui

Ngā tauihu e rua

E rua atu anō ngā whakairo mai i tēnei wā e whakaatu ana i ngā panonitanga hei urupare ki te taiao o Aotearoa. Kei runga i te haumi nō Taranaki i ahu mai i te rautau 1500, ngā niho taniwha e kite nuitia ana ki ngā moutere o Poronīhia. Heoi ko ētahi o ngā rārangi he mea whakapiko kia hua ko te takarangi, ko te rauru i kitea whānuitia i ngā whakairo o muri mai. Arā anō te haumi i kitea ki Taipā, e mau ana he tauira tōmua nō te manaia.


Carving, 1500 to 1800

He wā tēnei i puea ai te wairua auaha, ā, ka hua ngā piko, ngā tauira, ngā rauru e hāngai pū ana ki te toi Māori, ki te taiao Māori. Ko ngā tauira manu he mea hei whakaahua i te tinana tangata.

Te mīharo mai o ngāi Pākehā

Nō tēnei wā ka kai ngā mata o te Pākehā ki te ahurea Māori. I te tau 1770 ka kite a Joseph Banks, te kaimātai taiao o Kāpene Kuki me te kaipuke Endeavour, i ngā waka whakarei i Ūawa. Ka tuhi ia, ‘e hiahia ana au ki te whakaputa whakaaro mō te wairua auaha o ngā whakairo engari tē taea e ahau te tūtūā noa nei.’1

Te pātaka me te waka taua

Kia mana ai, ka whakatū ngā iwi i ngā pātaka whakairo, hei tohu i te whai rawa me te kaha manaaki a te hau kāinga; ka tāraia ngā waka taua hei tohu mō te kaha o te iwi kia tūria te hau.

Ngā rākaitanga tohorā

E kitea whānuitia ana te taratara ā-kae i te motu. I ahu mai i a Tinirau rāua ko Kae, i te patunga o te mōkai tohorā a Tutunui. Kāhore anō te Māori kia hopu i ngā hangarau patu tohorā i taua wā, engari ki te paea mai te tohorā, ka kīa he waimarie nui, ka noho taua ika hei kai, hei whao, hei taonga hoki. He tini ngā tohu mō te kai nui i ngā pātaka, kia mōhio ai te manuhiri he nui ngā rawa kai hei manaaki i ngā tira haere ki te pā o te iwi kāinga.

Ngā momo pātaka

Ko tētahi whakairo nui o tērā wā ko tērā e mōhio nei ko te pātaka o Te Kaha. Ko te maihi me te kūwaha o te pātaka i tū ki Maraenui, kei te taha tika o te awa o Mōtū, i te Moana a Toi. Kei ia maihi ka whakaaturia te wēra e tōia ana e te tangata, me te manaia, me te whakarākei ki te taratara ā kae o te  taowaru (ka whakapapa tētahi whakairo i runga i tētahi). He tohu tēnei momo whakairo mō te tohorā. Nā te āhua o te mahi whakapapa nei me ngā tauira āhua rehu nei ki te tirotiro atu, ka tino ngangahu ake te hōhonu o te whakaahua kei roto i te  whakairo.

Te whakairo tuare

Nō konei, e rua ngā momo whakairo nui i puta me ōna momo rerekētanga ā-rohe. Ko te tuatahi ko te tuare, ka whai pānga ki ngā rohe o Hokianga, o Hauraki, o Te Tai Rāwhiti, o Taranaki, me Ngāti Whātua. I tēnei momo whakairo, he hanga koeko ngā māhunga, ā, he hanga S te tinana. He rite tonu kāore e whakairotia ngā tinana, engari mēnā ka whakarākaitia, ko te unaunahi te whakairo ka kaha mahia, tae rawa ki Te Tai Tokerau. Ko ētahi momo o te unaunahi he ritorito, he pūngāwerewere.

E kitea nuitia ana te unaunahi i Te Tai Tokerau, ā, ko te ritorito ki Te Āti Awa o Taranaki. Ko ngā whakairo o Te Āti Awa he hōhonu ake, ka mutu ka whiri ngā ringa me ngā waewae, ā, he hanga koeko anō te māhunga, hei whakanui i te maunga o Taranaki. 

Ngā tūāhua o te wā

Ko te nuinga o ngā whakairo tapawhā o te rāwhiti ka takea mai i ngā tūtakitaki ki te Pākehā me te whiwhinga i te whao maitai. Nō konei ka pōhēhē ētahi mātanga he whakairo tōmuri te tuare. Heoi i te taunga mai o te Endeavour ki Ūawa i te tau 1769 ka tāia ngā pikitia e whakaatu ana i ngā tuare, ngā haehae me ngā pākati.

Te whakairo tapawhā o te rāwhiti

Ko tētahi o ngā momo whakairo o tērā wā ko ‘ngā whakairo tapawhā o te rāwhiti’ i kitea i Te Pēwhairangi, i Hauraki, i Te Tai Rawhiti, i Rotorua, i te tonga o Te Ika-a-Māui me Te Wai Pounamu. Ka kīa tēnei momo he whakairo tapawhā nā te mea he pērā te hanga o ngā tinana, he tapawhā, ā, kei tētahi hautoru o te whakairo katoa te rahi o te upoko.

Ngā whare whakairo nui

Ka kite hoki ngā kauhoe a Kuki i te angaanga o te whare whakairo kaita, neke atu i te 10 mita te roa. Nā te kore e kitea o ngā whare nunui ki ētahi atu rohe, ko te whakaaro i tīmata mai pea ngā whare whakairo nui i te Tai Rāwhiti, ki te wānanga o Te Rāwheoro i Ūawa. Mai i reira ka mahora haere. E ai ki ētahi i takohangia e Ngāti Awa te wharenui tuatahi o Te Arawa hei kaipākūhā. Tae rawa ake ki ngā tekau tau o 1830 me 1840, kua kapi katoa te whenua i ngā wharenui.

Footnotes
    • Tohutoro Anne Salmond, Two worlds: first meetings between Maori and Europeans, 1642–1772. Tāmakimakaurau: Viking, 1993, p. 281. Back

Carving, 19th century

He nui ngā tukitukinga o te ao Pākehā i te rewanga o te rautau 1800. Ko tētahi pānga nui ko te pū, i hinga ai te mātinitini i ngā pakanga maupū a ngā iwi. Kātahi ka tipia haurarotia ngā iwi kore pū. Ko te pātaka whakairo o Te Kaha tētahi taonga i turakina, kātahi ka hūnaia e Te Whānau-a-Apanui i ngā marau maupū o Ngāpuhi. Ka ōrua mai ko te ngaronga o ngā wānanga whakairo o te raki, o Hauraki me Tāmaki-makaurau. Nāwai i hē kātahi ka hē rawa atu i ngā pakanga whenua ki te Karauna. Hei tauira, ka tahuna e te Karauna ngā waka kotahi mano ki te moana o Manukau i mua i te huakitanga o Waikato.

Te Hau-ki-Tūranga

Nō ngā tau tata i muri i te hainatanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi ka whakairotia te whare whakairo a Raharuhi Rukupō, a Te Hau-ki-Tūranga. Ā, nō ngā tau tōmua o 2000 ka oti i a Te Papa Tongarewa ngā tapitapi mōna. He tauira anō tēnei mō te tauwhirowhiro mai i ngā waka taua me ngā pātaka ki ngā whare whakairo rangatira hei tohu i te mana o te iwi. He whetū taratahi a Te Hau-ki-Tūranga, koia te whare whakairo tawhito e tū tonu ana, ka mutu, ka kitea te tohungatanga o Rukupō ki te whakairo. Inā tōna tohungatanga ki te mau i ngā whao maitai, ka hua ake ngā whakairo hou kīanō anō i kitea i tērā wā. E ai ki a Āpirana Ngata, ko te ‘puāwaitanga o te toi Māori’ 1 i te whakatūnga o te wānanga whakairo e Ngata i te tau 1926, ka noho taua whare hei tauira mā ngā mahi a te kura whakairo.

Kāore he tohu mana i tua atu i a Te Hau-ki-Tūranga, hei whakaatu i te tirohanga ao Māori a te tohunga Māori ki ngā tikanga tuku iho a tōna iwi. I tino wehi a Rukupō ki te whakaekenga mai o te Pākehā, ā, tae rawa ake ki te tau 1860, kua turakina tōna ao i runga i te raupatutanga o Te Hau-ki-Tūranga e te kāwanatanga.

Ngā tohu ngāwari

I ngā rohe i taka i raro i te raupatu, pērā i te Tai Tokerau, i Taranaki me Waikato, ka korehāhā te mahi whakairo. I Te Tai Rāwhiti, ka haere tonu te mahi whakairo i raro i ngā tohunga pērā i a Hōne Ngātoto, ahakoa te whakawainga e ngā tūāhua Pākehā. Nō te tuwheratanga o te Māori ki te Rongopai me ngā tikanga Pākehā, ka papahoro haere ngā tohu o te ahurea Māori. Kātahi ka ōrite te whakairo ki te pukapuka, arā, ka whakamauria atu he taiaha ki ngā toa, ā, ka whakairotia te aroarowhenua i raro i tētahi rangatira hei tohu i tōna rohe.

Ngā whare tikanga maha

I te takiwā mai i te tekau tau 1860 ki te tau 1920, ka whakaarotia he iwi mate te iwi Māori. Nā ngā mautohe i roto i te pāremata, ka whakatūria ngā wharenui hei whare karakia, hei whare hui, hei whare moe hoki, otirā, kia āhei ai te hapori ki te whiriwhiri i ngā take o te wā. Heoi, kāore i nui te wā ki te tangata, e āhei ai te whakapau kaha ki te whakatū whare whakairo.

Ngā whare i tuhia ki te waipani

Kātahi ka maiangi te wairua auaha, ā, ka tīmata te tuhi o ngā whakairo ki te peita. Ko ētahi o ēnei whare ka whai pānga ki te irāmutu a Rukupō, ki a Te Kooti Arikirangi Te Tūruki, he poropiti, he kaingārahu. I tauiratia mai ēnei whare i ngā huatau taiao o ngā puka whakaahua i tukuna e ngā mihinare ki ngā Māori. Ka whakaurua te tukutuku,  te kōwhaiwhai me te whakairo ki ngā whare nei. E ai ki ngā hinengaro pupuru tikanga tuku iho pērā i a Ngata, e waimehatia ana te toi whakairo. Heoi ki te tiro whānuitia te noho a te iwi i tērā wā, he tohu rangatira tonu ngā whakanikotanga hou. Ko Rongopai i Manutūkē, ko Te Poho-o-Materoa i Awapuni (he pātata ēnei whare ki Tūranganui-a-Kiwa) ngā wharenui ka kaha kitea ēnei momo whakairo.

Footnotes
    • Tohutoro Deidre S. Brown, ‘Te Hau ki Turanga.’ Journal of the Polynesian Society 105, no. 1 (1996), p. 21. Back

The Rotorua school

Ngāti Tarāwhai

Otiia ko Ngāti Tarāwhai, he hapū nō Te Arawa. Ko rātou i whanake tonu i roto i ngā mahi whakairo whai muri i te taenga mai o te Pākehā ki Aotearoa. He hunga pono a Ngāti Tarāwhai nō te kāwanatanga i roto i ngā pakanga, ā, kāore i raupatungia ngā whenua. Ko te hua, ko te oranga tonutanga ake o te tātai tohunga whakairo ki roto ki te ao hou.

Te tohunga whakairo a Wero

Ko Wero Tāroi o Ngāti Tarāwhai pea te tohunga whakairo tuatahi kia mau ki ngā whao maitai. I ngā tekau tau o 1860, o 1870, ka puta te wairua auaha ki ōna pakoko o runga i ngā maihi, ngā amo o te whare o Houmaitawhiti (1860). Ahakoa te tū hirahira mai o ngā whakairoiro, kāore e taupatupatu ki te tinana o te tāraitanga. He mania noa o ana hoahoa, otirā ka whakaatu āna whakairo i te iwiruatanga, arā, he pūtu eke hōiho tā ētahi, ā, he mea panipani ki te peita me te waiho i te kōkōwai ki te taha. Nāna i whakaheke ōna mātauranga ki ana tauira ki a Ānaha Te Rāhui, ki a Neke Kapua me Tene Waitere.

Te kitenga a Ngata

I a ia e tai tonu ana ka whakaoho a Āpirana Ngata i tōna hapū kia whakatikangia mai te whare tipuna o Porourangi. Nō konā ia ka kite i te hikinga wairua o te hapori. I tōna whakatūranga hei minita Māori, ka kitea e ia koinei tētahi huarahi mā te motu whānui, kia tōia mai i te pūranga paru. I mānatunatu a Ngata ki ngā whanonga whakawaimeha o te wā, ā, ka nanaiore kia mau tonu iho te ahurea tūturu o te Māori. I whakapono a Ngata, ‘Ko ngā whare o te marae … te pūtahi matua o te hapori Māori. Kia whakatikangia rā anō ko ērā, e kore te hapori e āta titiro ki ētahi take kē atu.’1

Ngā whakairo tūruhi

Nō te taenga katoa mai o te tini o te Pākehā ki Rotorua, ka heke haere te wairua auaha i ngā mahi a Wero. Ka hiwa ake ngā kaiwhakairo ki te tuakiri Māori, ā, ka whakarerekētia ētahi o ngā hoahoa hei whakaahuareka i ngā kiritaki Pākehā. Ko tā ētahi o ngā kiritaki pērā i a Charles Nelson, he kaiwhakahaere hōtera, me Augutus Hamilton, te ringatohu o te whare taonga Koronī, he tohutohu i ngā kaiwhakairo he aha nei te hiahia a ngā kaihoko Pākehā. I te tau 1905 ka kī ake a Hamilton, ‘ka ākona ngā Māori ki te hanga taonga kātahi ka whakairotia’.2

Ngā kiritaki Pākehā

Nā te kore haeretanga o ngā waihanganga whare whakairo, ka tahuri ngā kaiwhakairo ki ngā kiritaki Pākehā hei whai oranga mō rātou. Heoi ki te Pākehā, he toi noa iho te whakairo, kāore i arohia ngā whakahekenga kōrero o te whakairo mai te tirohanga ao Māori. Nāwai ka whakatau ngā Pākehā i ō rātou ake huatau kia māmā ake ai ki te hunga Pākehā e hoko ana i ngā taonga.

Te Wānanga Toi Māori o Rotorua

I haere tonu ēnei momo whakairotanga i raro i te awe o te Kura Whakairo i Rotorua i hangaia i te tau 1926. I tū tuatahi te whare ki te hōro o Te Ao Mārama ki te whare karakia o St Faiths i Ōhinemutu. Nāwai ka nekehia ki Utuhina, ā, ka noho ki reira tae noa ki te tau 1937. Ko ngā tauira tuatahi ko Pine Taiapa (he tauira nā te kaiwhakairo o Te Tai Rāwhiti, a Hōne Ngātoto), ko Piri Poutapu me Waka Kereama o Waikato.

I whakaritea te hōtaka e Āpirana Ngata kia riro mā te kāwanatanga e utu ngā tauira me ngā kaimahi. Ko tā ngā iwi, he mahi moni mō ō rātou whare whakairo, wharekai hoki. Tae rawa ki te wā mahi, ka noho ngā kaiwhakairo me ngā whānau ki runga i te marae, ā, ka whāngaia rātou e te hau kāinga. I hua i tēnei pūnaha mahi ngā wharenui 21, ngā whare whakaaturanga e rua, ngā wharekai 10, ngā whare minenga e rua me ngā whare karakia e ono. Nō te otinga o ngā mahi whakangungu, ka tahuri ngā pia 27 ki te ako i te reanga hou.

Te mahi pūtea

‘Kia whai huruhuru te kaupapa mō te whare whakairo kātahi ia (Ngata) ka tono i ngā kaiwhakairo kia tīmataria ngā mahi. Pau ana ngā moni o te iwi kāinga, nuku atu ana ngā kaiwhakairo he wāhi kē, ā, kia kōputu rawa anō he moni mō tētahi wāhanga atu, kātahi anō rātou ka hoki atu.’3

Te whare ā-motu

Nā Ngata anō i hanga te tauira mō ngā wharenui o te motu, engari ka whakaae tonu ia ki ētahi o ngā rerekētanga ā-rohe. Heoi ko te nuinga o ngā wharenui he mea whakatauira i Te Hau-ki-Tūranga. Ko ngā pou me ngā heke ka ākona i te kura o Rotorua, i tū ai ngā whare o mua, ka panonitia. Nō konei ka taea tōna whakairo ki tētahi wāhi, kātahi ka tāpiri noatia i muri i te hanganga o te whare. Mā te tango i tēnei wāhanga o te mahi, ka whāia ngā tauira o ngā whare taonga i whakatūria e Hamilton rāua ko Nelson i te tekau tau 1880.

Nō te ekenga ki te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao ka tūtakina te tatau. Nō te huakitanga anō i raro kē i te ingoa o Te Wānanga Toi Māori o Rotorua, kua paenga te wā ki ngā ‘whakatūnga maha’.

Footnotes
    • Tohutoro ‘The story of the modern marae.’ Te Ao Hou 2 (Spring 1952), p. 23. Back
    • Tohutoro Roger Neich, Carved histories: Rotorua Ngati Tarawhai woodcarving. Tāmakimakaurau: Auckland University Press, 2001, p. 143. Back
    • Eric Schwimmer, The world of the Maori. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: A. H. and A. W. Reed, 1966, p. 34. Back

Carving in urban environments

Ko Hōne Taiapa

Nā te maunutanga nui o te iwi Māori mai i te taiwhenua i muri i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao, e rua ngā huarahi matua o te whakairo ka whāia e ngā pia. Ko ētahi ka ū tonu ki te huarahi o mua. Ka mutu he pērā anō tā Hōne Taiapa, te teina o tērā o ngā kaiwhakairo a Pine Taiapa, ka ū tonu rā ki te ngako o tuawhakarere. I whakatairanga anō ia i ngā mahi tārei taonga o te toi whakairo, ā, kāore i tino whakaakona ngā kura huna.

Te kura toi

Ko te urunga tērā o ētahi o ngā pia ki ngā kura auraki me ngā whare takiura kia whai wāhi i te tohu toi ki te tau tuatoru rā anō. Kātahi ka kite ēnei o ngā pia i te pōhēhē a te nuinga kua nehua kētia ngā toi Māori i te taha o ngā tīpuna Māori. Ko te heitara a ngā mātanga me te ringatohu o te Taiwhanga Toi o Aotearoa, arā, ‘kāore anō kia kitea tētahi tohunga toi Māori whai mana. Kua pērā rawa te kaha o te noho whakawaimeha a te Māori, waimeha anō hoki ngā toi o ana tīpuna, kōpani mai tōna ahurea ki tērā o tāna hoa Pākehā.’1

Ko Manaaki Wilson tētahi o ngā kaitoi Māori i whakangungu ki te Kura Toi o Elam. Ki tāna ‘kāore he take o te whakaora i tērā mea i te toi Māori … e tīkina ana te tauira o mua atu i te tau 1840, hei tuarua rānei i te hē, e tikina noatia atu ana he tauira nō te tauira i hangaia ai i te wā i a Ngata mā.’2

Ngā marae noho tāone

Nō te tekau tau 1970 he mātotoru tonu te momotu a te iwi Māori ki ngā tāone, ā, ka puta ngā whakahau mō ētahi marae tāone. Ko te whare whakairo i Hoani Waititi ki Te Atatū tētahi o ngā marae hou ka noho hei tohu i te ao tūroa.

Ko Cliff Whiting

Nā te tohunga whakairo nā Pine Taiapa i akiaki tōna uri a Cliff Whiting (nō Te Whānau-a-Apanui) kia rukuhia te toi whakairo ki tōna rētōtanga. Kua ārahi a Whiting i ngā whakahounga maha e pā ana ki ngā wharenui o runga marae tae atu ki ngā marae tāone. Nāna i arataki te whakairotanga o Te Kupenga o te Mātauranga ki te Kura Takiura o Te Papaioea. I te whakatuwheratanga i te tau 1979, ka noho ko tēnei te whare tuatahi kia hangaia ki tētahi kura takiura.

Ko Maru Kaitātea, ki Kaikōura

Ko Whiting tētahi anō o te hunga auaha, Māori mai, Pākehā mai, i whai wāhi ki te hanganga o te wharenui o Maru Kaitātea ki te marae o Takahanga ki Kaikōura. Nō te tau 2001 ka tuwhera te marae. E ai ki te hau kāinga, ki a Ngāti Kurī, mai anō rātou e noho tahi ana me te Pākehā. ‘I mahi tahi te iwi whānui kia whai wāhi te katoa ki te marae. Ko tēnei te marae tuatahi kia pērā.’3

Ko Te Hono ki Hawaiki, ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara

Ko Te Hono ki Hawaiki te whare whakairo o Rongomaraeroa, te marae o Te Papa Tongarewa. He nui ngā takumekume i tōna whakatuwheratanga i te tau 1997. Nā te pou monemone haere o ngā rākau māori, ka whakamahi a Cliff Whiting i ngā papa MDF mō ngā whakairo o te marae, ā nō muri mai ka tāia ki ngā tae hirahira piakano. Ko ngā whakairo kei te pou mataaho e pā ana ki ngā kōrero tuku iho a te Māori, ko tōna tuarongo e pā ana ki te hunga manene e noho kāinga nei ki Aotearoa.

Ngā waka taua hou

I ngā wā o ngā whakahōutanga, ka ōrua mai he tapitapinga o te mahi tārai waka. Ko te waka taua anō tētahi tohu o te mana o te iwi. Nā te maruwehi o Te Puea Hērangi ki te waka taua o Kīngi Mahuta, ki a Tāheretikitiki, e tere ana i runga i te au o Waikato, ka whakaterea e ia a Piri Poutapu mā ki te hahau mai i ngā waka hei tohu mō ngā waka tīpuna i heke mai i Hawaiki.

E whitu ngā waka i tūmanakotia mō te rautau o te Tiriti o Waitangi i te tau 1940, engari e rua noa iho ngā waka i tāraia (ko Aotea me Tākitimu), ā, ka whakahoutia mai a Te Winika. I Kerikeri, ka tāraia e Poutapu rāua ko Pita Hepera a Ngātokimatawhaorua. Ka ora anō mai te waka whakairo i te maumaharatanga 150 tau o te Tiriti o Waitangi i te tau 1990. 23 ngā waka whakairo o te kahupapa i taua rangi. 

Footnotes
    • Stewart Bell Maclennan, ‘Art in New Zealand – section II: survey, trends, and influences, 1938 to present.’ In An encyclopaedia of New Zealand, edited by A. H. McLintock. Vol. 1. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Government Printer, 1966, p. 87. Back
    • Damian Skinner, The carver and the artist: Māori art in the twentieth century. Tāmakimakaurau: Auckland University Press, 2008, p. 12. Back
    • Tohutoro Adrienne Rewi, ‘Takahanga – a place by the sea.’ Te Karaka, http://www.mauri.co.nz/Blog/takahanga-a-place-by-the-sea (pātengi raraunga 15 Hānuere 2014). Back

Carving in the 2000s

Ngā marae tāone

I te rautau 2000 e waihanga tonutia ana ngā whare whakairo hei tohu whai mana o te tuakiri Māori. Ko te nuinga he marae taone nō ngā iwi Māori maha (pērā i a Ngā Hau e Whā ki Ōtautahi), he marae rānei mō ngā iwi o te ao (pērā i te marae o Kirikiriroa ki Kirikiriroa tonu). He tokomaha ka waihangatia ki ngā whare wānanga me ngā kura. Ka mau tonu i ēnei whare ngā tauira i heke mai i ngā whare pērā i a Nuku-te-apiapi e tū mai rā i Whakarewarewa, arā, he ariā mārama, ehara i te whakairo muna, heoi anō, hohoro tonu te kite atu i ngā tīpuna i ngā tohu kei runga, me te tūnga i roto i te whare.

Ko Ngākau Māhaki

Ko Ngākau Māhaki te wharenui i Te Wānanga o Wairaka i whakairotia e Lyonel Grant. E ono tau ka oti te whare, i maiangi ake i ngā mahi auaha a Para Matchitt, me Cliff Whiting mā. Kei ngā poupou ka kitea te mahinga tūpono noa e oho ai te wairua. Ko te manaia mai i te tekau hēneti te tohu i whakamahia e Grant mō te iwi noho tāone. Ka mutu kei ngā maihi e tāia ana ngā tohu manomano o te 1 me te 0. He mahi ohaoha tēnei ki a Io-matua-kore, otirā he tohu anō mō te waehere takirua (he waehere rorohiko ka whakamahuki i te oranga katoa).

Ngā kaiwhakairo o Whitireia

Ko Whitireia te whare whakairo i Whāngārā, arā te wāhi o te kiriata Whale rider. Nō te whakahoutanga o te whare ka kuhu atu ngā tauira o Toihoukura ki te tango i ngā maihi me ngā amo. I reira ka huraina ngā ingoa o ngā kaiwhakairo, e 70 tau i muri mai. 

Ngā pia a Pine Taiapa 

Ko te kaiako o Grant, ko Hōne Taiapa. Ko tōna tuakana a Pine te waha kōrero o te whānau mō ngā whakapapa, mō ngā whaikōrero me ngā kōrero tuku iho. Ko āna tauira ko Cliff Whiting rāua ko Para Matchitt (ngā whakairo hou) me te tohunga whakairo a Pākāriki Harrison (whakairo tawhito).

Ko Pakariki Harrison

I a ia i te whare takiura ka tūtaki a Harrison ki tōna whakaruruhau ki a Pine Taiapa. I ia pō, i ia pō mō te toru marama, ka whangaia ia e Taiapa ki ngā karakia e pā ana ki te whakairo me te whakapapa. He maha tonu ngā whare nā Harrison i mahi ki waenganui i ngā hapū me ngā marae tāone. Nāna i whakatauākī mō ngā wharenui, arā, ‘te whakapiringa o te tangata, te whakairinga o te kupu’.

Te Uepū o Te Mana Tohu Mātauranga o Aotearoa

I te tau 1995 ka huia mai e Harrison ngā tohunga whakairo o Aotearoa hei whakaruruhau ki te whakatakoto i ngā paerewa mō Te Mana Tohu Mātauranga o Aotearoa – i panoni ai te whakairo hei whāinga mātauranga.

Te tohu whakairo tuatahi

Nā Harrison rāua ko Kereti Rautangata (he tauira nā Harrison) i whakahaere te tohu whakairo tuatahi ki Maunga Kura Toi, ki Te Wānanga o Aotearoa, i te tau 2002. Atu i te mahi whakairo, me taunga anō ngā pia ki ngā kawa me ngā karakia e pā ana ki te whakairo. I te tau 2013 ko Te Wānanga o Aotearoa, ko Te Wānanga o Raukawa me Te Puia ngā whare i whakamanaia e Te Mana Tohu Mātauranga o Aotearoa ki te kawe i te tohu whakairo.

Te oranga tonutanga o te whakairo tawhito

I whanake tonu te whakairo tawhito i roto i te rautau 2000. Ākene pea nā te noho a te Māori ki ngā taone i whakamāui ake ai te whakairo, arā, e 80 ōrau o te Māori kei ngā taone e noho ana. Waihoki ki te tā moko, ka noho ko ngā whare whakairo, ngā waka taua me ngā toi whakairo hei tohu wehi, hei mātaki mā ngā uri ki tō rātou ahurea ao Māori.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

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How to cite this page: Brett Graham, 'Whakairo', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/whakairo/print (accessed 23 August 2019)

Story by Brett Graham, published 22 Oct 2014