Kōrero: Ngāi Tahu

Whārangi 7. Te whakautu a Ngāi Tahu ki te tonga

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Te tai tonga

Haere ai ngā hapū o Ngāi Tahu i Te Ara-o-Kiwa (Foveaux Strait) me te takutai o Ōtākou ki Poihākena ki te tauhokohoko, e riro mai ai he pū. Ka tono a Ngāi Tahu e noho ana ki Kaiapoi kia āwhinatia rātou e ō rātou huānga o te tonga; nō te tau 1832–33 ka taka te whakatau kia whakaekehia a Ngāti Toa.

Te rerenga o Te Rauparaha

Ka wehe a Ngāi Tahu o te tonga ki te patu i a Ngāti Toa, i raro i te mana o Tūhawaiki, o Makere Te Whanawhana, o Whaititi, o Paitu. I te taenga o te tira ki Ōtākou, ka haumi atu a Taiaroa, a Karetai, a Haereroa mā, ka whakatika te tira ki Kaiapoi. I Kaiapoi, ka kotahi ngā peka katoa o Ngai Tahu, ka huri te ihu o ngā waka ki te raki. Ka haere te taua mā te takutai kia tae ki Kāparatehau (Lake Grassmere); i reira a Te Rauparaha e hopu pūtangitangi (paradise duck) ana.

Ka takoto te kokoti whakamoe a Ngāi Tahu ki muri i tētahi puke i te taha o te roto. Aoake i te ata, e hoe mai ana ngā waka o Ngāti Toa, ka maranga te taua o Ngāi Tahu. Ko Ngāi Tahu i eke panuku, heoi, ka puta te ihu o Te Rauparaha. Heoi, e ai ki tētahi koroua nō Ngati Toa, ‘Tērā te pakanga i ākina e Ngāi Tahu, i hinga ai te taua o Te Rauparaha ki Kāparatehau (Lake Grassmere). Ka ora a Te Rauparaha i tana putanga ki te moana. Ko te nuinga o te iwi i pae ki te tāhuna i patua e Ngāi Tahu.’

Ngā pakanga ki te raki

Ka whāia a Ngāti Toa e Ngāi Tahu ki te whanga o Karauri. Ka noho ko te whārua o Ōraumoa hei wāhi pakanga. Ka wehe atu a Ngāti Toa. Nō te ekenga o ngā rā e rua kua hoki mai a Ngāti Toa me ā rātou haumi. Pau katoa te rā ka whai i te pakū o ngā pū, ā, i te pō, ka hoki ngā iwi ki te tiaki i te hunga i mate, i taotū hoki. I te pakanga nei ka taotū a Karetai, te huānga o Tūhawaiki. Nā te iti o ā rātou matā, pō rawa, ka whakawātea a Ngāi Tahu.

I te ata ka whāia a Ngāi Tahu e Ngāti Toa. Nō te huringa o ngā waka o Ngāi Tahu ki te tūtaki i a Ngāti Toa, ka huri a Ngāti Toa, ka hoki. Nō muri, kīhai rawa a Ngāti Toa i whakawhiti i Te Parinui-o-whiti (White Bluffs). I te raumati o te tau 1833–34, ka whakaarahia e Ngāi Tahu tētahi taua nui; nō konei he rahi ake ngā toa, he maha ake ā rātou pū. I ēnei pakanga, noho atu ai a Ngāi Tahu ki Te Koko-a-Kupe (Cloudy Bay), e tatari ana kia puta mai a Ngāti Toa. Heoti, kīhai a Ngāti Toa i puta, nā runga pea i ngā raruraru i waenganui i ana haumi i Te Ika-a-Māui. Nō muri ka whakaeke a Ngāi Tahu i ngā iwi haumi o Ngāti Toa, kātahi ka hoki ki te kāinga.

Te whakaekenga a Te Pūoho

Kotahi anake te riri i tū i mua i te whakatūnga o te tatau pounamu a Ngāi Tahu rāua ko Ngāti Toa i te tekau tau atu i 1830. Nō te tau 1836, ka rewa te taua o Te Pūoho, te rangatira o Ngāti Tama (he haumi nō Ngāti Toa) ki te whakaeke ohorere i a Ngāi Tahu mā muri. Ka haere te ope taua a Te Pūoho mā Te Tai Poutini mai i te kokoru o Whanganui ki te awa o Tioripātea (Haast River). Ka whakawhiti atu ia mā Tioripātea (Haast Pass) ka ahu atu ki te pokapū o Ōtākou, ki Murihiku. Heoi, ka rongo a Tūhawaiki, te rangatira o Ngāi Tahu ki Ruapuke, mō te taenga mai o te hoariri; kātahi ka whakatika tana ope taua ki te tūtaki i a Te Pūoho. Ka ohorere te kōkiri a Ngāi Tahu i a Ngāti Tama, ko te pae o te riri, ko Tūtūrau. Ka hinga a Te Pūoho mā ki konei, ruarua anake i mau ora hei herehere.

Te tatau pounamu

Nō 1839, kua mārama i a Ngāi Tahu me Ngāti Toa, kāore he hua o ā rāua pakanga ki a rāua. Taro ake, ka tū te tatau pounamu i waenganui i a rāua, ka tukuna e Te Rauparaha ana pononga o Ngāi Tahu e noho mauhere ana ki Kapiti. I te mutunga o ngā pakanga, ka pūmau ngā paenga whenua o Ngāi Tahu. Nā ngā whakapākūhā i waenganui i ngā iwi, tae rawa ki tētahi i waenganui i ngā uri o Te Rauparaha rāua ko Taiaroa, ka pūmau te maungārongo a Ngāi Tahu me Ngāti Toa.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Te Maire Tau, 'Ngāi Tahu - Te whakautu a Ngāi Tahu ki te tonga', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/ngai-tahu/page-7 (accessed 7 December 2019)

He kōrero nā Te Maire Tau, i tāngia i te 8 Feb 2005, updated 1 Mar 2017