Kōrero: Ngā Reo Irirangi

Whārangi 1. Te rima tekau tau tuatahi

Ngā whakaahua

Ngā pāhotanga reo Maori tuatahi

Ahakoa nō te tau 1921 ka puta te reo irirangi ki Aotearoa, nō te tau 1927 rā anō ka rangona te reo Māori. I tērā tau ko Airini Grenell (Ngāi Tahu), ko ngā kaiwhakangahau Māori o Pito-one (Petone Māori Variety Entertainers), ko te Kāreti Māori o Ōtaki ētahi o ngā reo tuatahi. I te rā o Waitangi i te 6 o Huitanguru i te tau 1928 ka pāhotia te ahurei hītori Māori ki runga i ngā reo irirangi e whā o te motu, ā, nō muri ka pāhotia ki tāwāhi. Ko tēnei te pāhotanga whānui rawa i Aotearoa, tae noa mai ki tērā wā.

Te reo i te irirangi

I te Pipiri i te tau 1929 ka pāho te reo o te pīhopa tuatahi o Aotearoa a Frederick Bennett. E ai ki The Radio Record ‘inā te ātaahua o te iere me te whakahua o te reo Māori, inā anō te tau a Pēneti ki te tuku hōnea ki ngā kaiwhakarongo Pākehā i runga i te wairua whakangahau – “Ko te wawata ia kāore he tangata i kanga mai ki aku kōrero, i runga i te pōhēhē nā taku tuku ā-irirangi i nanunanu ai. Kāo, ko tō mātou reo tēnei, e maioha atu ana ahau ki tōku iwi Māori”.’

Te whakahua i te reo Māori

I taua tau anō ka pāho te Pākehā reo Māori nei a J. F. Montague i tōna hōtaka e pā ana ki te whakapai ake i te whakahuatanga o te reo Māori. I te tau i muri mai ka whakakapi a Hare Hongi i tōna tūnga kaiwhakataki o te hōtaka. Arā anō ngā rōpū i pōhiringia ki ngā pari kārangaranga ā-motu, pērā i te Koaea o te Kāreti Māori. 

Ngā kaiwhakataki ā-rohe tokowhā

I ngā tau tata ki te mutunga o te tekau tau 1930 ka whakatū te kaihautū pāho matua a James Shelley i ētahi kaipāho Māori tokowhā i ngā tāone matua e whā; kotahi ki ia taone. Ko te tuatahi ko Lou Paul (Ngāti Whātua), i te tau 1936 ki Tāmaki-makaurau, ā, ko Kīngi Tāhiwi (Ngāti Raukawa) ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara, ko Te Ari Pītama (Ngāi Tahu) ki Ōtautahi, ko Airini Grenell ki Ōtepoti. 

Te hōtaka reo Māori tuatahi

Nō te tau 1940 ka pāho te hōtaka reo Māori tuatahi, whai muri i te kōkiritanga o te take ki te kāwanatanga. Ko te hua ko te rongorongo kōrero 15 meneti te roa e pā ana ki te Rua Tekau Mā Waru. Ko Wiremu Pāka (Ngāti Porou) te kaiwhakataki, he manu korokī i ngā reo e rua. I takina e ia ngā rongo pakanga, ngā aituā tae atu ki ngā kaupapa Māori ā-rohe. Ka oati a Pāka e kore ia e whakamahi i te kupu manene, ahakoa te uaua o ngā kupu pērā i te ‘submarine’. Kei hea atu i a Pāka hei kaiwhakataki i te hokinga mai o te Rua Tekau Mā Waru ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara i te 23 o Kohitātea i te tau 1946. Neke atu i te 40 tau a ia e pāho ana. 

Ngā poroporoaki irirangi

I te matenga o te rangatira a Te Rangihīroa i te tau 1949, i riro nā tōna hoa aroha nā Āpirana Ngata a ia i poroporoaki i te reo irirangi o 2YZ.

Nga pao me nga pakiwaitara

Mai i te tau 1949 ki te tau 1958 ka pāhotia e te Ratonga Pāho o Aotearoa ngā hōtaka e kīia ana ko Nga pao me nga pakiwaitara a te Maori: song and story of the Maori. Ko ētahi o ōna rongo kōrero ko ngā hopukanga a NZBS i te tekau tau 1940. Ko ngā kaiwhakataki reo Pākehā ko Ulric Williams rātou ko Clive Drummond, ko Airini Grenell. 

Ted Nēpia

I te tau 1957 ka tīmata te hōtaka rongo kōrero 20 meneti i te wiki a Ted (Edward) Nēpia (Ngāti Kahungunu) ki Ahuriri. He tino hōtaka a Te reo o te Maori ki te iwi o Te Matau-a-Māui.

Leo Fowler

I tērā wā ko te Pākehā nei ko Leo Fowler te kaiwhakahaere o te teihana i Tūranga. Ka rongo ia i ngā īnoi a ngā Māori kia rahi ake ngā kaupapa Māori i te teihana. Nāwai i tōna tūnga hei kaiwhakahaere mō te Kaporeihana Pāho o Aotearoa ka āhei a Fowler ki te whakatutuki i ēnei momo tono. I te tau 1964 ka waihangatia e ia te wāhanga Māori, ā, ka whakawhānuitia te hōtaka a Ted Nēpia, a Te reo o te Maori, ki te motu. 

Bill Kerekere

Ka kawea anō e Fowler te pahi o te reo irirangi kia hopu haere i ngā kōrero a ngā Māori me ngā Pākehā. Ko Wiremu Kerekere (Te Aitanga-a-Māhaki) tōna poutoko ki te ao Māori. He kaiwete reo, he kaitito ihumanea, he kaiako kapa haka, he kaiwhakatangi piana, he tangata marae. He rite tonu ngā wā ka kitea ngā hopuoro a te tokorua nei ki ngā hui, ngā tangihanga me ngā ahurei. Nāwai ka tū a Kerekere hei kaiwhakahaere mō te wāhanga Māori whai muri i te matenga o Fowler. 

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Piripi Walker, 'Ngā Reo Irirangi - Te rima tekau tau tuatahi', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-reo-irirangi/page-1 (accessed 21 April 2019)

Story by Piripi Walker, published 22 Oct 2014