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Māori radio – reo irirangi

by Piripi Walker

Neke atu i te 20 ngā reo irirangi Māori puta noa i Aotearoa. He mairanga i te reo Māori te kaupapa. He tū āhua te pāpāho Māori i hua ake i te tekau tau 1920. 


First decades of Māori radio

Ngā pāhotanga reo Maori tuatahi

Ahakoa nō te tau 1921 ka puta te reo irirangi ki Aotearoa, nō te tau 1927 rā anō ka rangona te reo Māori. I tērā tau ko Airini Grenell (Ngāi Tahu), ko ngā kaiwhakangahau Māori o Pito-one (Petone Māori Variety Entertainers), ko te Kāreti Māori o Ōtaki ētahi o ngā reo tuatahi. I te rā o Waitangi i te 6 o Huitanguru i te tau 1928 ka pāhotia te ahurei hītori Māori ki runga i ngā reo irirangi e whā o te motu, ā, nō muri ka pāhotia ki tāwāhi. Ko tēnei te pāhotanga whānui rawa i Aotearoa, tae noa mai ki tērā wā.

Te reo i te irirangi

I te Pipiri i te tau 1929 ka pāho te reo o te pīhopa tuatahi o Aotearoa a Frederick Bennett. E ai ki The Radio Record ‘inā te ātaahua o te iere me te whakahua o te reo Māori, inā anō te tau a Pēneti ki te tuku hōnea ki ngā kaiwhakarongo Pākehā i runga i te wairua whakangahau – “Ko te wawata ia kāore he tangata i kanga mai ki aku kōrero, i runga i te pōhēhē nā taku tuku ā-irirangi i nanunanu ai. Kāo, ko tō mātou reo tēnei, e maioha atu ana ahau ki tōku iwi Māori”.’

Te whakahua i te reo Māori

I taua tau anō ka pāho te Pākehā reo Māori nei a J. F. Montague i tōna hōtaka e pā ana ki te whakapai ake i te whakahuatanga o te reo Māori. I te tau i muri mai ka whakakapi a Hare Hongi i tōna tūnga kaiwhakataki o te hōtaka. Arā anō ngā rōpū i pōhiringia ki ngā pari kārangaranga ā-motu, pērā i te Koaea o te Kāreti Māori. 

Ngā kaiwhakataki ā-rohe tokowhā

I ngā tau tata ki te mutunga o te tekau tau 1930 ka whakatū te kaihautū pāho matua a James Shelley i ētahi kaipāho Māori tokowhā i ngā tāone matua e whā; kotahi ki ia taone. Ko te tuatahi ko Lou Paul (Ngāti Whātua), i te tau 1936 ki Tāmaki-makaurau, ā, ko Kīngi Tāhiwi (Ngāti Raukawa) ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara, ko Te Ari Pītama (Ngāi Tahu) ki Ōtautahi, ko Airini Grenell ki Ōtepoti. 

Te hōtaka reo Māori tuatahi

Nō te tau 1940 ka pāho te hōtaka reo Māori tuatahi, whai muri i te kōkiritanga o te take ki te kāwanatanga. Ko te hua ko te rongorongo kōrero 15 meneti te roa e pā ana ki te Rua Tekau Mā Waru. Ko Wiremu Pāka (Ngāti Porou) te kaiwhakataki, he manu korokī i ngā reo e rua. I takina e ia ngā rongo pakanga, ngā aituā tae atu ki ngā kaupapa Māori ā-rohe. Ka oati a Pāka e kore ia e whakamahi i te kupu manene, ahakoa te uaua o ngā kupu pērā i te ‘submarine’. Kei hea atu i a Pāka hei kaiwhakataki i te hokinga mai o te Rua Tekau Mā Waru ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara i te 23 o Kohitātea i te tau 1946. Neke atu i te 40 tau a ia e pāho ana. 

Ngā poroporoaki irirangi

I te matenga o te rangatira a Te Rangihīroa i te tau 1949, i riro nā tōna hoa aroha nā Āpirana Ngata a ia i poroporoaki i te reo irirangi o 2YZ.

Nga pao me nga pakiwaitara

Mai i te tau 1949 ki te tau 1958 ka pāhotia e te Ratonga Pāho o Aotearoa ngā hōtaka e kīia ana ko Nga pao me nga pakiwaitara a te Maori: song and story of the Maori. Ko ētahi o ōna rongo kōrero ko ngā hopukanga a NZBS i te tekau tau 1940. Ko ngā kaiwhakataki reo Pākehā ko Ulric Williams rātou ko Clive Drummond, ko Airini Grenell. 

Ted Nēpia

I te tau 1957 ka tīmata te hōtaka rongo kōrero 20 meneti i te wiki a Ted (Edward) Nēpia (Ngāti Kahungunu) ki Ahuriri. He tino hōtaka a Te reo o te Maori ki te iwi o Te Matau-a-Māui.

Leo Fowler

I tērā wā ko te Pākehā nei ko Leo Fowler te kaiwhakahaere o te teihana i Tūranga. Ka rongo ia i ngā īnoi a ngā Māori kia rahi ake ngā kaupapa Māori i te teihana. Nāwai i tōna tūnga hei kaiwhakahaere mō te Kaporeihana Pāho o Aotearoa ka āhei a Fowler ki te whakatutuki i ēnei momo tono. I te tau 1964 ka waihangatia e ia te wāhanga Māori, ā, ka whakawhānuitia te hōtaka a Ted Nēpia, a Te reo o te Maori, ki te motu. 

Bill Kerekere

Ka kawea anō e Fowler te pahi o te reo irirangi kia hopu haere i ngā kōrero a ngā Māori me ngā Pākehā. Ko Wiremu Kerekere (Te Aitanga-a-Māhaki) tōna poutoko ki te ao Māori. He kaiwete reo, he kaitito ihumanea, he kaiako kapa haka, he kaiwhakatangi piana, he tangata marae. He rite tonu ngā wā ka kitea ngā hopuoro a te tokorua nei ki ngā hui, ngā tangihanga me ngā ahurei. Nāwai ka tū a Kerekere hei kaiwhakahaere mō te wāhanga Māori whai muri i te matenga o Fowler. 


Broadcasting Māori music and speech, 1960s to 1980s

Ngā pēne Māori

Mai i te tekau tau 1960 ka kaha ake te rongo o te reo o te Māori, me te reo Māori tonu, i ngā reo irirangi. Ka rongonui ngā pēne pērā i te Howard Morrison Quartet, te Quin Tikis me te Māori Hi Fives i te motu, i te ao. He waiata makau ā rātou waiata ki te hunga whakarongo. 

Te Wāhanga Hōtaka Māori

Ka haere tonu ngā pāhotanga a te Wāhanga Hōtaka Māori o te Kaporeihana Pāho o Aotearoa, i puta ai ngā mahi ataahua a ngā autaia pērā i a Herewini Murupaenga (Ngāti Kurī) rāua ko Haare Williams (Ngāi Tūhoe me Te Aitanga-a-Māhaki) ki Tāmaki-makaurau; tae atu ki a Whai Ngata (Ngāti Porou) rāua ko Hāmuera Mitchell (Te Arawa) ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara. 

Te puna wai korero

I te tau 1971 ka waihangatia e Murupaenga te hōtaka o Te puna wai korero. He hōtaka reo Pākehā tēnei i hāngai ki ngā kaupapa nui ki te Māori. Mai ka tīmata, tae noa ki tōna mutunga i te tau 1996, ka ū tōna āhua ake. Ka tīkina e Murupaenga ngā kaupapa maha hei kōrerotanga māna, pērā i te Māori i ngā whare herehere, me ngā mānukanuka a ngā kaimahi pāpori Māori ki ngā tāone.

I te tau 1978 ka tū ko Whai Ngata hei kaihautū mō Te Puna wai korero. Ka hāngai pū ngā mahi a Ngata ki ngā kaupapa whānui a te Māori, mai i ngā waiata tawhito, ki ngā kēnge o aua rā. He taiea tāna pāho i te noho ki Takaparawhā i te tekau tau 1970, me ngā raumahara a te Ope Hōia Māori Rua Tekau Mā Waru. Mai i te tau 1981 ki te tau 1996 ka noho ko Hēnare Te Ua hei kaihautū mō Te Puna wai korero

‘Poi e’

I te tau 1984 ka maiangi ake te waiata a ‘Poi e’ ki ngā reo irirangi o te motu. Ka hau te rongo o ‘Poi e’, ā, ka pīrangitia e te tini o te tangata, me te reo Māori hoki o ngā kupu. Ko te Karapu Māori o Pātea ngā kaiwaiata, nā Ngoingoi Pēwhairangi i tito, nā Dalvanius Prime te rangi mōhou. I kake te waiata nei ki te tūranga tuatahi ki Aotearoa, ā, he whānui tōna hoko ki tāwāhi. Nā te maheni o Peretānia, nā te New Musical Express a Poi e i tīpako hei ‘waiata mō te wiki’ māna.

Hirini Melbourne

Ōrua mai ka tito a Hirini Melbourne (Ngāi Tūhoe) i āna titonga nui mā te tamariki reo Māori. Ka noho tonu āna waiata hei puiaki whakahirahira mā ngā irirangi Māori. 


First iwi radio station

Te whakatumatuma irirangi Māori

Hāunga ngā mahi pai a ngā reo irirangi i ngā tau ki mua, taka rawa ki te tekau tau 1970, e 90 meneti noa iho i te wiki te pāho o te reo Māori ki te irirangi. Ka mutu e haumate ana te reo Māori, e matemate ana te hunga reo Māori, e waimeha ana te reo i waenga i te rangatahi. Ko te whakatumatuma tērā a te rōpū Reo Māori o Te Whare Wānanga o Te Upoko o Te Ika a Māui (i raro i te awe o Te Kapunga Koro Dewes) kia kaha ake te kōrero me te rongo o te reo Māori ki Aotearoa nei, ki ngā reo irirangi me ngā pouaka whakaata. 

Te irirangi o Poronīhia

Ka tuku tāpaetanga kōrero te rōpū  Reo Māori me ētahi atu rōpū Māori ki te komiti pāpāho a te kāwanatanga kia whakatū i tētahi reo irirangi Māori. I te tau 1973 ka tūtohu te pūrongo a te komiti kia whakatūria tētahi reo irirangi mā ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa (tae atu ki te Māori) ki Tāmaki-makaurau. Heoi i te tau 1974 ka whakakorehia tēnei rautaki e te kāwanatanga Nāhinara.  

Te Reo o Aotearoa

Ka mahue kē taua whakaaro, ā, ka waihangatia mai te wāhanga Māori o Irirangi Aotearoa e kīia ana ko Te Reo o Aotearoa, i te tau 1978. Ko āna putanga ko ngā hōtaka rongo kōrero a ngā moutere me te iwi Māori. Ko ngā reo a te Māori me ērā o ngā moutere o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa ka rangona mō  te takiwā o te 10 tau. Ko Haare Williams te kaiwhakahaere tuatahi o Te Reo o Aotearoa, ā, ko Whai Ngata (Ngāti Porou) rāua ko Hēnare Te Ua anō ētahi o ngā kaimahi. 

Te Reo o Pōneke

I te tau 1981 ka whakatū a Īhakara Puketapu rāua ko Iritana Tāwhiwhirangi o Te Tari Māori i ngā poari reo ā-rohe. Nō muri mai ka huaina he ingoa Māori mō te poari reo Māori o Te Whanganui-a-Tara, ko Ngā Kaiwhakapūmau i te Reo. Ka whakatūria mai e rātou te reo irirangi o Te Reo o Pōneke hei whakamātautau, mō te wiki kotahi i te Hereturikōka i te tau 1983. Ahakoa kāore te teihana i whai pūtea kāwanatanga, ka kuhu tonu mai ngā tohunga o te reo pērā i a Maaka Jones rātou ko Ruka Broughton, ko Wiremu Pāka mā ki te awhi i te kaupapa. Ko ētahi kaupapa o te hōtaka 12 haora te roa, ko ngā kōrero ā-rōpū, ngā take mohoa, me ngā puoro Māori. I te Wiki o te Reo Māori i te tau 1984, ka whakahaeretia anō Te Reo o Pōneke mō te rua rā. 

Te teihana tūturu tuatahi

I te tau 1987 ka whakatūria Te Reo Irirangi o Te Ūpoko o Te Ika e Ngā Kaiwhakapūmau i te Reo mō ngā marama o Haratua me Pipiri. Nā te pārekareka ki ngā taringa o te marea, ka toko te hiahia kia pāho haere tonu te reo irirangi, ā, i te Paengawhāwhā i te tau 1988 ka tū te reo irirangi hei teihana reo Māori tuatahi. 

Ngā whawhai ā-ture ki ngā iarere

I te mutunga o te tekau tau 1980 me te tekau tau 1990 ka whakakotahi Ngā Kaiwhakapūmau i te Reo me te Kaunihera Māori ki te kawe i ngā kerēme pāpāho Māori ki Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi; te Kōti Teitei me Te Kōti Pīra. Ko tētahi i kawea rā anō ki te Piriwiri Kaunihera i Rānana.


The iwi radio network

Ka pāho ngā irirangi ā-iwi

I runga i te tauira a Ngā Kaiwhakapūmau i te Reo, ka whakatūria mai ngā irirangi Māori ā-rohe atu i te tau 1985. He moroiti ngā pūtea tautoko a te kāwanatanga, ā, ka mate ki te whakamahi i ngā taputapu tawhito a ngā teihana auraki. Ko te nuinga he rangatahi Māori i utua ki raro i ngā kaupapa utu mahi. Nāwai ka whakamānawatia te hunga nei mō tō rātou ngaio ki te ao pāpāho. 

Ngā kupu irirangi

Aratuku:  ko ngā iarere AM, FM me te UHF.

Hōtaka: he hōtaka irirangi, whakaata rānei.

Hunga pāpāho: ko te hunga mahi i ngā momo pāhotanga.

Kaipāho: he tangata pāho ki te irirangi, whakaata rānei

Pāho: te pāho irirangi.

Whakapaoho: he whakapāoho i ngā kōrero.

Nō te tau 1985 ka pāho Te Reo o Raukawa ki Ōtaki. I te tau 1987 ka pāhotia a Tautoko Radio ki Mangamuka, a Radio Ngāti Porou ki Ruatōrea. Nō muri ka whakatūria a Te Toa Takitini ki roto o Ngāti Kahungunu. I tāwharautia tēnei kaupapa ki te kuratini o Te Tai Rāwhiti i te mea ko te kaiwhakaū ko Joe Te Rito te ūpoko o te Tari Māori o te kuratini. Ko te whāinga o te reo irirangi o Te Toa Takitini he hopu i ngā reo waitī a te hunga kōrero Māori. He maha ngā kuia me ngā koroua matatau ki te reo i mahi i tēnei o ngā reo irirangi mō te wā roa. I āta hopukina ā rātou kōrero mō ngā whakatupuranga kei te ara ake.

Irirangi te Motu

I te tau 1989 ka whakatūria e te kāwanatanga te kōmihana pāho o te motu, nō muri ka tapā ko Irirangi te Motu. I te tau 1990, ka pēhia a Irirangi te Motu e ngā iwi kia waihanga mai i ngā irirangi ā-iwi me te whakarato pūtea mā ngā hunga mahi, ngā utu, ngā pou hiko me ngā taputapu. I raro i tēnei kaupapa ka tū ētahi teihana 20. Ki te Māori he whanaketanga nui tēnei, kia tū he teihana mō tēnā iwi, mō tēnā iwi. Ko te wawata kia noho ko ngā iwi tonu te rangatira, ā, kia tūhonohono ēnei irirangi hei kupenga mō te motu katoa. 

Ngā ratonga me ngā wero hangarau

I te tīmatanga o te hīkoi he uaua mō ngā teihana. Ka tāwēwē tonu ngā utu i te kore pūtea, ā, he whakakipa i ngā kaimahi tūao tētahi wero nui. Kāore i mārō ngā ara whakangungu kaimahi, me ngā huarahi whakapakari ngaiotanga, nā te matapiko o te kāwanatanga ki te tuku pūtea mai. E toru ngā teihana i pāho ki te aratuku iarere AM, ka mutu, $100,000 te rahi ake o te utu pāho i ērā teihana, tēnā i te aratuku iarere FM. Ahakoa te rerekētanga, kāore i rerekē te pūtea mō aua teihana. 

Te Māngai Pāho

I te tau 1993 ka whakatūria a Te Māngai Pāho. Ko te hua tēnei o ngā kerēme ki ngā Kōti, me Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi. Ka noho te kōmihana hei puna pūtea mā ngā reo irirangi ā-iwi. E riro pūtea ai, me whakatutuki te teihana i te ritenga o ngā haora i te reo Māori kua oti te tautuhi e Te Māngai Pāho. 

Te Hononga Whakapaoho Māori

I te tau 1994 ka whakatūria Te Hononga Whakapaoho Māori e te kaiwhakahaere o Radio Ngāti Porou, e Ngāhiwi Apanui. Ko ngā kaipupuri matua o te kamupene ko ngā reo irirangi ā-iwi tonu. 

‘E pāoro atu ana ki ngā pari kārangaranga’

I te tau 2013 22 ngā teihana ā-iwi puta noa i te motu e pūmau tonu ana ki ngā huatau a ngā kaipara i te huarahi, a te hunga whakarongo me te hunga taituarā. Ka rangona te reo Māori ki ngā hapori katoa, i ngā haora katoa. Nō reira ka noho te reo hei reo ora, e  pāoro atu nei ki ngā maunga me ngā pari kārangaranga o te motu’. 


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Piripi Walker, 'Ngā Reo Irirangi ', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-reo-irirangi/print (accessed 18 October 2019)

Story by Piripi Walker, published 22 Oct 2014