Kōrero: Whare Māori

Whārangi 3. Te aranga o te whare whakairo

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Te whare whakairo tuatahi

Nō ngā pāpānga nui ki te ao Māori i puea ake i te pokapū o te rautau 1800, ka puea ake te whare whakairo. Nā runga i ngā hoko whenua, te tāmokotanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi me te Rongopai ka kōaro ki te kimi i ētahi wāhi nui hei huihuinga mō te iwi. Kātahi ka tīkina ngā whakairo o te pātaka, ā, ka tāpirihia ki te mahau o te wharepuni hei whakanui ake i tōna mana, ā, ka whakarahi ake i tōna hanga. 

Ngā hononga Karaitiana

E ai ki ētahi i ahu mai te whakaaro mō ngā whare whakairo tuatahi i te kitenga a te Māori i ngā whare me ngā whare karakia a te Pākehā. Nō te tekau tau 1840 ka waihanga haeretia ngā whare whakairo tuatahi ki te Tai Rāwhiti. He rohe rongonui tēnei mō te mahi whakairo, ā, nō te tau 1840 tonu ka tau te Rongopai me te Tiriti o Waitangi ki te rohe. Ko tētahi o ngā whare whakamīharo o te wā ko Te Hau-ki-Tūranga whare ki Tūranga. Nā te tohunga whakairo o Rongowhakaata nā Raharuhi Rukupō i hahau mai tēnei whare.

Ngā tauira hanga o Ūropi

Kāore te katoa o ngā wharenui i whai whakairo, mahau rānei. Ki te tai hauāuru me te tai tonga, tae atu ki Te Waipounamu, ka tāmate ngā whakairo i ngā pakanga ā-iwi (tae atu ki ngā riri mau pū o te tekau tau 1820), ngā pakanga whenua me te uru ki ngā ohaoha hoko taonga. Ka tauiratia ētahi whare i ngā hōro me ngā whare karakia Pākehā, ā, ka whakamahia ngā rauemi me ngā hangarau pērā i ngā papa huarere, ngā haeana, ngā whakamāeneene me ngā nēra. 

Ngā whare a Te Kooti

I te pito o te rautau 1800 me te tīmatanga o te rautau 1900 ka hanga ngā whakapono me ngā rōpū tōrangapū Māori i ā rātou whare. Mai i te tekau tau 1880 ka huataki te hanganga o ngā whare whakairo a Te Kooti Arikirangi Te Turuki. He rerekē ēnei whare, inā rā ka peitangia ngā tiki me ngā manaia ki ngā peita a te Pākehā. 

I mua i tōna wā

Ko te kāinga o Parihaka tētahi o ngā kāinga Māori i tere tonu ki te hopu i ngā rākau hou a te Pākehā. I te tīmatanga, he Māori katoa ngā papanga o ngā whare, engari nāwai ka kapo ake ki ngā papahuarere me ngā papa rino mō te hanga i ā rātou whare. Nō te tau 1885, e anganui ana ngā whare ki ngā tiriti kē. He wai rere, he kōrehu, he rama hiko katoa tō Parihaka. I tērā wā kāore anō ēnei hangarau kia tae ki Pōneke. 

Ngā whare a ngā poropiti

I waenganui i te tau 1881 me te tau 1907 ka whakatenatena ōna kaiārahi a Te Whiti-o-Rongomai rāua ko Tohu Kākahi kia hangaia ngā whare Pākehā mō ngā rangatira o te hapori. He whare inu kaputī Wikitōriana anō i Parihaka. Nāwai ka whakakapia katoatia ngā whare Māori ki ngā kāinga papahuarere.

I te tau 1907 ka waihangatia e Rua Kēnana Hepetipa tōna kāinga ki Maungapōhatu, ki Te Urewera. I tīkina e ia te tauira o tōna whare i ngā karaipiture e pā ana ki te whare o Horomona, arā, te Dome of the Rock’.

He tikanga Romanesque te waihanga whare o ngā temepara a Tahupōtiki Wiremu Rātana. Nō te tau 1927 ka tuwhera te temepara tuatahi, ā, nō muri mai ka whakatūria ērā ki Mangamuka (i te tau 1947), ki Te Kao (i te tau 1952), ki Te Hāpua (i te tau 1954), ki Raetihi (i te tau 1957) me Ahipara (i te tau 1965).

He mea urutau ēnei whare i te koronga kia kapohia ake ngā rākau a te Pākehā me ōna hangarau hoki hei hiki ake i ngā tūmanako me ngā wawata Māori e pā ana ki te wairua me ōna mahi tōrangapū. 

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Deidre Brown, 'Whare Māori - Te aranga o te whare whakairo', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/whare-maori/page-3 (accessed 20 September 2021)

He kōrero nā Deidre Brown, i tāngia i te 22 Oct 2014