Kōrero: Whare Māori

Whārangi 4. Te whakaaranga o ngā whare whakairo

Ngā whakaahua

Te kura whakairo

Tae tonu ki te tau 1920 kua haumate ngā mātauranga e pā ana ki te hanga whare whakairo. Nō konei ka hika te ngākau o Āpirana Ngata ki te rongoā i te mate. He māngai nō te Tai Rāwhiti, he kaimātai tikanga tangata hoki a Ngata, nāna i kōkiri te whakatūnga o te kura toi Māori ki Rotorua. E rua tau i muri i tōna whakatūnga i te tau 1927, kua puta te ihu o ngā tauira whakairo – pērā i a Pineāmine Taiapa rātou ko Hōne Taiapa, ko Piri Poutapu, ko Waka Kereama. Ko ngā tohunga whakairo tonu o Te Arawa ngā kaiako. 

He tawhiti rawa

Nō te hanganga o ngā whare whakairo i te rautau 1900 ka tūpono ki ngā ture a te Pākehā. Nō konei me whai putanga ahi, puare hauhau, hiko, kōrere wai hoki te whare whakairo. I whakaae tonu a Ngata ki ētahi o ngā rerekētanga, engari ko tāna: ‘kua rahi kē ngā mahi whakapōrearea a ētahi ture, kua tūtū ngā matapihi, kua tiaho te mārama ki ngā wāhi kāore e tika.1

Te whai wāhi o te wahine

Ka tere tonu te tīmata o ngā mahi a te kura ki te waihanga whare whakairo, wharekai (he tūāhua hou i tērā wā) hoki. Ka whakaritea te mahi raranga tukutuku mā te hunga wāhine. I hiahia a Ngata kia whai wāhi te katoa o te hapori ki te hanganga o te whare, ā, nā te rāhui o te wahine i ngā tapu o te wāhi mahi, ka hangaia mai e Ngata mā ngā papa tukutuku, kia āhei te raranga ki wāhi kē.

Te whakairo i te wharekai

He mea akiaki te hunga rangatahi ki te whakarākai anō i ngā wharekai ki te kōwhaiwhai, te tukutuku me ētahi momo whakairo. He whakapono tā Ngata ka noho anō ngā whare hei tohu ki te mahi tahi a te marae me te iwi. I te mea he whare kai, he noa te wharekai, ā, ka puta te wairua auaha. He whakairo māmā, he kōwhaiwhai, he tukutuku ka tāpirihia ki roto i te wharekai, otirā kāore i ōrite te kaha o te tapu ki ērā ki te whare whakairo. Nā te korekore o ngā tapu, ka puta te wairua auaha a te hunga rangatahi, ā, kāore i māharahara ki te tānoanoa i te tapu. 

Ngā tohunga waihanga whare o te ao hou

Nō te katinga o te kura whakairo i te tau 1938; kua puta kē te ihu o ngā tohunga whakairo maha me te huhua o te wahine raranga tukutuku, ā, e 21 ngā whare whakairo, 10 ngā wharekai, e ono hoki ngā whare karakia i hangaia e te kura. Heoi ko te hua nui, ko te putanga o te ihu o te reanga kaiwhakairo, raranga tukutuku, raranga kōwhaiwhai hoki. Nā rātou anō i para te huarahi mō te hanganga o ngā whare whakairo me ngā wharekai i whakaratohia e te kaupapa a te kāwanatanga ki te whakarato i ngā tohu whakamahara ki ngā pakanga. Nō te tau 1966 ka tuwhera a Te Puia ki Te Whakarewarewa i Rotorua. 

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Tohutoro Deidre Brown, Māori architecture: from fale to wharenui and beyond. Tāmakimakaurau: Raupo, 2009, p. 89. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Deidre Brown, 'Whare Māori - Te whakaaranga o ngā whare whakairo', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/whare-maori/page-4 (accessed 26 March 2019)

Story by Deidre Brown, published 22 Oct 2014