Kōrero: Whare Māori

Whārangi 5. Ngā hanganga Māori o te ao hou

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Ngā marae

Ko te whare whakairo tētahi o ngā kaupapa whakaora i ngā kāinga me ngā tikanga a te Māori i roto i te rautau 1900. Nā whai anō mai i te tau 1970, ka whai ngā kaupapa Māori i tēnei momo waihanga Māori, ā, kāore i whai ki ngā whare i tauiratia i a tauiwi, pērā i ngā whare a ngā poropiti pērā i a Rua Kēnana me Rātana. E kitea ana te whai hiranga ahurea o te whare whakairo i ngā marae o ēnei rā. Ka mutu i whakatūria ngā whare whakairo me ngā wharekai ki ngā marae i te taone: Ko ētahi o ngā marae:

  • Ko te marae o Rehua (i tuwhera i te tau 1960) ki Ōtautahi
  • Ko te marae o Te Puea (i tuwhera i te tau 1965) ki te Tonga o Tāmaki-makaurau
  • Ko te marae o Hoani Waititi (i tuwhera i te tau 1980) ki te Uru o Tāmaki-makaurau
  • Ko te marae o Ngā Hau e Whā (i tuwhera i te tau 1990) ki te rāwhiti o Ōtautahi.

I tāpirihia ki ēnei marae ngā tūāhua kīhai i kitea i te marae i mua, pērā i te wharepaku me te whare ora.

E ōrite tonu ana te āhua o te whare ki ngā whare i whakarērea, arā, kotahi te taiwhanga, kotahi te kūwaha, kotahi te matapihi kei mua. Heoi nō te tūponotanga ki ngā tikanga hanga i whai matapihi ai ngā whare, kia pai ai, kia hauhau ake ai te whare. I roto i te rautau kua pahure, kua whakawhenumia ngā hangarau me ngā tūāhua a te Pākehā, i toko ake ai te pātai mēnā he Māori tonu ngā whare. 

Mai i te tekau tau 1980 ka kitea ngā marae ki ngā kura kaupapa, ngā wānanga me ngā kuratini. Nō te tekau tau 1990 ka hangaia ki ngā hōhipera me ngā whare herehere. 

Te whakaoranga hanganga 

I hangaia a designTRIBE i te tau 1994 kia whai wāhi te iwi whānui ki ngā ratonga hanga whare Māori. Ko Rau Hoskins (o Ngāti Hau me Ngāpuhi) tētahi o ngā kaiwhakahaere o designTRIBE. Nāna i ārahi ngā tūmahi ki te whakaora i ngā whare Māori. I te tau 2002 ka kohia e ia ngā kōrero a ngā kaumātua mō te āwhina i ō rātou kaumātua ki te hanga whare, i a rātou e tamariki ana. I waihangatia tētahi whare raupō i te whanga o Te Patunga ki te Tai Tokerau, me tētahi whare nīkau ki Puataho ki Kaipara.

Ko John Scott rāua ko Wiremu Royal 

E tipu haere tonu nei ngā kaihoahoa me ngā kaiauaha whare ki waho i te horopaki o te whare whakairo. Ko John Scott rāua ko Wiremu Royal ētahi o ngā whakaihuwaka ki te hoahoa whare. Nō Ngāti Raukawa a Royal, ā, e whakaarotia ana koia te Māori tuatahi kia whiwhi i te tohu whare wānanga mō te hoahoa whare i te tau 1960. I te tau 1968 ka tū tōna ake whakahaerenga. He maha ngā tūmomo mahi ka whakaritea e ia ki te kāinga, ki tāwāhi. Kua whai wāhi ia ki ngā hanganga mō ngā marae 60 te maha.

I ako a John Scott (nō Taranaki me Te Arawa) ki te hanga whare ki Tāmaki-makaurau i te tekau tau 1940. I ngā tau whakamutunga o 1950 ka whakamanaia ia e te Marist Brothers (he peka nō te Hāhi Katorika) kia auahangia te whare karakia ki Karori. He tohu whakamahara tēnei whare ki te whakahere o Hato Pita Hanere ki te moutere o Futuna i te tau 1841. Nā te rōpū Brothers tonu i waihanga te whare me ngā papanga iti noa. Ko te whare karakia o Futuna tētahi o ngā whare whakahirahira kia hangaia ki Aotearoa i te rautau 1900. 

Kāore te mokemoke, kāore te aroha

I te tau 2014 ka tū i roto i te taiopenga Venice Architecture Biennale (te taiopenga nui mō ngā mahi waihanga) tētahi whakakitenga nō Aotearoa e kī ana ko Last, Loneliest, Loveliest. I pā te whakakitenga ki ngā whare whakairo me ngā whare o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. E ai ki te kaiārahi ki a David Mitchell, he rerekē ngā waihanga o Ūropi, inā rā, he kaitā katoa te hanga. Heoi ki Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, ka aro te hanga whare ki ngā poupou, ngā paepae me ngā tuanui nunui. E tipu tonu ana tēnei tikanga i ēnei rā, ahakoa ngā tukitukinga o te ao Pākehā.’1

Ētahi atu kaihoahoa whare, whanaketanga hoki

Arā anō ngā kaihoahoa Māori i whai atu i ngā tapuwae a Scott rāua ko Royal, pērā i a Rewi Thompson rātou ko Tere Insley, ko Perry Royal (te tama a Wiremu Royal) me Rau Hoskins. Ka hāngai pū tonu ā rātou whare ki ngā huatau, ngā uara me ngā hangarau i whai pānga ki te hītori o te waihanga whare Māori tae atu ki ngā tikanga manaaki i te whenua. Hāunga ā rātou mahi ki ngā wāhi noho, me ā rātou tohutohu ki ngā whakahaere hauora, pāpāho, mātauranga, whare herehere hoki, ka whai wāhi nui anō ēnei kaihanga whare ki ngā kaupapa whakatū whare, noho taone hoki a te Māori. Arā anō te rōpū wāhine e hanga ana i ā rātou momo whare, ko Elisabeth Heta, ko Raukura Tūrei me Rebecca Green ētahi.

I whakatūria a Te Hononga ki Te Whare Wānanga o Wairaka i te tau 1999. Ko te mahi a ngā tauira he ako ki ngā tūmahi hanga ki roto i ngā hapori Māori. I te tau 2002 ka whakaritea e rātou tētahi pānui ārahi hei whai mā Housing New Zealand. 

Kupu tāpiri
  1. ‘Māori and Pacific architecture feature in the New Zealand exhibition at the 14th Venice Architecture Biennale 2014.’ Salient, http://salient.org.nz/features/maori-and-pacific-architecture-feature-in-the-new-zealand-exhibition-the-14th-venice-architecture-biennale-2014 (last accessed 7 July 2014). Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Deidre Brown, 'Whare Māori - Ngā hanganga Māori o te ao hou', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/whare-maori/page-5 (accessed 20 September 2021)

He kōrero nā Deidre Brown, i tāngia i te 22 Oct 2014