Kōrero: Te reo Māori

Whārangi 6. Ngā kaupapa mai i ngā tau o 1980 ki ngā tau e 2000

Ngā whakaahua

Te kura kaupapa

Ka nui haere, ka nui haere ngā tamariki e putaputa ana i ngā kōhanga reo; waihoki, ka maranga ake ko ngā kura kaupapa ki te ako i ngā tamariki i roto i te reo Māori. Ko Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Hoani Waititi ki te uru o Tamaki-makau-rau te kura kaupapa tuatahi. Ka whakahiatotia he marautanga hou mō ēnei tūmomo kura, kīia ai ko Te Aho Matua, hei aha, hei ara reo Māori tuwhera ki te hunga pīrangi kia akona ā rātou tamariki i roto katoa i te reo Māori. Taro ake, ko ngā whare kura (kura tuarua he reo Māori katoa) hei ara ki ngā tamariki mai ngā kura kaupapa.

Whakatupuranga Rua Mano

Nā Ahorangi Whatarangi Winiata i whakatakoto te mahere Whakatupuranga Rua Mano, he rautaki ki te whakaora i te reo ki roto o Ngāti Raukawa, Te Āti Awa me Ngāti Toarangatira. I taua wā, i roto i aua iwi, kāhore he tangata kotahi kei te kōrero Māori kei raro iho i te 30 tau te pakeke, whai anō te wehi kei mate te reo Māori pērā i te moa me te huia. Ko te whāinga ia o Whakatupuranga Rua Mano, mā roto i ngā wānanga kōrero i te reo Māori anake ka nui haere, ka nui haere te hunga kōrero i te reo Māori. Nāwai, ā, ka whakatūria ko Te Wānanga o Raukawa i te tau 1981; kāore i roa ka whai iho ko Te Whare Wānanga o Awaniuārangi me Te Wānanga o Aotearoa.

Te kerēme mō te reo Māori

I te tau 1984 ka whakatakotoria te kerēme a ngā Kaiwhakapūmau i te Reo Māori ki mua i te aroaro o Te Ropu Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi mo te reo kia whai mana i raro i te ture. Ko tēnei kereme a WAI 11 te tuatahi rawa o ngā kereme horapa ā-motu a te iwi Māori ki mua i te Taraipiunara; e whā wiki te roa o te nohoanga i te tau 1985. Nō te tau 1986 ka puta te whakatau a te Taraipiunara, e ai ki te wāhanga tuarua o Te Tiriti o Waitangi, he taonga te reo. Whāia, ko te Ture mo te Reo Māori i te tau 1987, ko tāna ko te whakamana i te reo Māori me te whakatū i Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori.

Ngā pāhotanga i te reo

I te tau 1987 ka tīmata ngā pāhotanga o Te Ūpoko o Te Ika, te reo irirangi Māori tuatahi; taro ake ka maranga ko te maha o ngā reo irirangi Māori. I te tekau tau mai i 1990 ka tahuri te kāwanatanga ki te hoko atu i ngā rawa pāpāho o te motu me te aha, ka maranga Te Kaunihera Māori o Aotearoa rāua ko ngā Kaiwhakapūmau i te Reo, ka haria te Karauna ki ngā koti o te motu, tae rawa atu ki Ingarangi ki te aroaro o Te Rūnanga Ruānuku a te Kuini (te Privy Council) 1. Ka whakaae te rūnanga rā kei te tūpuhi haere te reo Māori, me tahuri te Karauna ki te whakaora anō. Taihoa ake ka whakapanonitia e te Karauna Te Ture mō ngā Kaupapa Pāpāho (Broadcasting Amendment Act 1993), ka whakatūria hoki Te Māngai Pāho hei pūtea āwhina i ngā pāhotanga o te reo Māori me ōna tikanga. Nō ngā tau o te tekau tau mai i 2000, e rua tekau mā tahi ngā reo irirangi ā-iwi kei te pāho ki ngā tōpito katoa o te motu.

Ngā hōtaka Māori i te pouaka whakaata

Mō te wa roa kua kitea he hōtaka Māori i roto i ngā pāhotanga auraki i te pouaka whakaata, pērā i a Te karere, i a Waka huia me Marae kei Te Reo Tātaki o Aotearoa (Television New Zealand). I te tau 2004 ka whakatūria ko Whakaata Māori hei hāpai i ngā kaupapa whakaata i te reo Māori. Ka taka ngā tau e whā, ka puea ake te hōngere Te Reo i raro i ngā parirau o Whakaata Māori, ko ana kaupapa katoa kei roto i te reo. He wāhi nui tō ngā kaupapa pāpāho ki te hāpai me te whakaora i te reo Māori, tae rawa iho ki te hunga he uaua te whai hoa mōhio ki te kōrero Māori.

Te rautaki mō te reo Māori

Nō te tau 1997 ka takoto i te kāwanatanga te rautaki mō te reo Māori hei kōtuitui i ngā mahi i te rāngai reo Māori. Mā tēnei ka āhei Te Puni Kōkiri ki te rangahau i te ora o te reo me te nui o ngā tāngata mōhio ki te kōrero i te reo.

Ka aro te rautaki mō te reo Māori i ngā tau 2003 ki 2008 kia kaha atu te kōrero i te reo ki ētahi wāhi, me te whai kia kōrerotia te reo e te tini me te mano; heoi ko te whāinga nui i te rautaki kia kōrerotia noatia te reo e ngā whānau, ki roto i ngā kāinga me ngā hapori Māori. Tētahi atu whāinga kia nui te aro o te reo Māori e ngā tāngata puta noa i Aotearoa.2

I te tau 2010 ka whakatūria e te minita mō ngā take Māori tētahi rōpū hei arotake i te rāngai reo Māori me ngā pūtea mō te reo. Kāore i oti tana mahi, ka puta te pūrongo tōmua a Te Ropu Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi mō te kerēme WAI 262 e hāngai ana ki te reo Māori. Ko 2010 te tau ka puta te pūrongo Te reo mauriora, me ngā panonitanga ki te rautaki mō te reo Māori, e huri ai ngā kaupapa me ngā mahi ki te whakahoki anō i te reo ki roto i ngā hapori me ngā kāinga.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. I takoto ki Ko Aotearoa tēnei: a report into claims concerning New Zealand law and policy affecting Māori culture and identity. Vol. 2. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Waitangi Tribunal, 2011, wh. 401. Back
  2. Māori Language Strategy 2003–2008. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Te Puni Kōkiri, 2003, wh. 5. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Rawinia Higgins rāua ko Basil Keane, 'Te reo Māori - Ngā kaupapa mai i ngā tau o 1980 ki ngā tau e 2000', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-reo-maori/page-6 (accessed 17 October 2019)

Story by Rawinia Higgins rāua ko Basil Keane, published 5 Sep 2013, updated 1 Sep 2015