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Te reo Māori – the Māori language

by Rawinia Higgins rāua ko Basil Keane

I te tau 1986 ka puta te whakatau a Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi i mea ai, he taonga te reo Māori, ā, nō te tau i muri mai ka whakamanatia te reo hei reo ōkawa o Aotearoa. Ko ētahi o ngā kaupapa whakatairanga i te reo i puea ake ko ngā kura kaupapa Māori, ko ngā kōhanga reo, tae rawa iho ki ngā reo irirangi Māori me ngā kaupapa whakaatangia ai i te pouaka whakaata.


The Māori language

Karangahia ai te reo o te iwi Māori, ko te reo Māori, ko te reo rānei. Ko te reo Māori te reo o te iwi Māori o Aotearoa, koia tētahi o ngā reo ōkawa o Aotearoa, me te reo Ingarihi, me te Reo Rotarota o Aotearoa. Nō te tau 1987 ka whakamanatia te reo Māori hei reo ōkawa o Aotearoa.

Te nui kaikōrero

Kei ngā tatauranga o te tau 2013 nui iti ake i te haurima (e 21.3%) o te iwi Māori ka kōrero Māori. Ko te tokomaha o ngāi Māori he kōrero Māori, 125,352. Ko te huinga katoa o ngā tāngata kōrero Māori, Māori mai, tauiwi mai, ka eke te rahinga ki te 148,395,(e 3.7% o te taupori). E ai ki ngā tatauranga o te tau 2013, 38.8% o ngā tāngata Māori e 65 tau neke ake te pakeke kei te matatau ki te kōrero Māori. Heoi, o te iwi Māori kei raro i te 15 tau te pakeke, e 16.6% anake ka matatau ki te kōrero Māori.

Te whānau reo

He pekanga te reo Māori nō te whānau reo e kīia nei he Austronesian, arā, he reo ka kitea puta noa i te tonga mā rāwhiti o Ahia, pakaru mai ki Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Ko te reo Māori i hua ake i ngā reo maha o Poronihia, me kī, i te kāhui reo Tahitic, arā, mai Tahiti, ngā Kuki Airani, me ngā reo o Tuamotu. Tino whanaunga te reo Māori ki te reo o te iwi Moriori o Wharekauri.

Ngā pū o te reo tuhi a te Māori

Tekau mā rima ngā reta i te pū Māori :

  • e waru ngā orokati: ko h, k, m, n, p, r, t me w
  • e rua ngā digraphs: ko ng me wh
  • e rima ngā oro puare: a, e, i, o, u.

E rua ngā momo oro puare, ko te oro puare roa me te oro puare poto. E ai ki ngā tikanga o ēnei rā mō te tuhi i te reo Māori, ko te tohutō ka tohu ki te oro puare roa, arā, a, e, i o, u. I roto i ngā tikanga tuhi o ngā rā ki mua, kāore he tohu e mōhio ai te kai-pānui ko hea ngā oro puare roa, ko hea ngā oro puare poto; he mea whakahuarua rānei ngā oro puare i mua, inā rā, aa, ee, ii, oo, uu. Whakamahia tonutia ai e ngā iwi o Waikato tēnei tikanga tuhi tatū rawa ki ēnei rā.

Te mita o te reo i tēnā rohe, i tēnā rohe

E toru ngā rohenga matua o te reo Māori ki Aotearoa: ko te mita o te rāwhiti o Te Ika-a-Māui, ko te mita o te taha uru o Te Ika-a-Māui, me te mita o Te Wai Pounamu. Ko te whakapae, i hua te mita o Te Wai Pounamu mai i tērā o te rāwhiti o Te Ika-a-Māui. Ko te reo Moriori o Wharekauri, i whānau mai pea i te mita o te reo o Te Wai Pounamu.

Kei tēnā whaitua he whakahua i te reo, kei tēnā whaitua he whakahua i te reo. Whakahuatia ai e Ngāi Tūhoe te oro ‘ng’, ko ‘n’; ko tā Ngāi Tahu whakahua i te oro ‘ng’ he ‘k’. Kei ngā iwi o te awa o Whanganui me te maunga o Taranaki te whakahuanga i te oro ‘wh’ he ‘w’, ko te glottal stop, hei kapi. Ko te whakahua a ngā iwi o ētahi whaitua o te raki i te oro ‘wh’ he ‘h’, hei tauira, ka huaina te kupu ‘whakahaere’ ko ‘hakahaere’.


Pākehā engagement with te reo, 1769 to 1840s

Tupaia – te kaiwhakamārama reo ā-waha tuatahi.

I te tau 1769 ko te tūtakitanga tuatahi a Kapene Kuki (Captain James Cook) ki te Māori. Ko tōna waka ko Endeavour. Kei runga hoki i te Endeavour te tohunga, ariki hoki o Tahiti, a Tupaia. Nā Joseph Banks i tuhi 'now found that the language of the people was so like his own that he could tolerably well understand them and they him’ (he ngāwari noa ki a Tupaia te whakarongo me te kōrero i te reo o te iwi nei, me te pai noa iho hoki o tā rātou whakarongo mai ki ana kōrero).1

He mea nui te noho mai a Tūpaia hei kaiwhakamārama i ngā kōrero, heoi, he wā anō ka hapa. Ko Ūawa tētahi o ngā wahi tōmua rawa i Aotearoa i haerea ai e Kapene Kuki. I te tūtakitanga ki ngā Māori o reira, ka uia e ia ko hea te ingoa o te wāhi rā, ā, ka mahara ngā Māori e pātai ana ia mō te ingoa o te hau i taua wā tonu, koia ka meatia atu, he tāraki; ka whiria e te arero Pākehā kia huaina ko ‘Tologa’.

Ngā Pākehā ka haere tuatahi mai

Ka mōhio wawe ngā Pākehā i haere tuatahi ki Aotearoa, me mātua ako i te reo Māori ka tika. He pērā anō mō ngā heremana, ngā kaipatu tohorā me te hunga tauhokohoko ka whai mai, kāore i kō atu i te ako kia kōrero Māori. Ka noho ngā Pākehā, ā, ka moe wāhine Māori, ka ako i te reo. Taihoa, ka pakeke ā rātou tamariki, ka matatau ki ngā reo e rua, ko ētahi o ngā uri whakaheke ka eke hei takawaenga i ngā taha e rua. He rite anō te āhua i ngā mihinare, me matua ako rātou ki te kōrero Māori.

Te ako ki te tuhi

E ai ki a Joel Polack, tētahi o ngā kaituhi tōmua, he rerekē te tuhi a tēnā, a tēnā i ngā kupu Māori, inā, 'Herd in his chart, calls the Port of Hokianga, Jokeeangar, Mr. Marsden terms it Shukianga, and the Baron de Thierry in his proclamation 1837, Yokianga; the most faithful pronunciation is E'Oakianga ... it is however best known as Hokianga.' (Tērā te tuhituhi a te tangata rā a Herd i te ingoa mō Hokianga, ko Jokeeangar; e ai ki tā Te Mātenga (Samuel Marsden) ko Shukianga, ko tā Baron de Thierry tuhi i tana whakaputanga i te tau 1837, ko E’Oakianga.)2

Te tuhi i te reo Māori

I ngā rā o nehe ehara te reo Māori i te reo tuhituhi. I te tīmatanga he tino rerekē ngā tikanga mō te tuhi. Nāwai, ka tahuri ētahi ki te whai kia ōrite tana tuhi. I te tau 1815 ka puta te pukapuka a Te Kēnara (Thomas Kendall) A korao [korero] nō New Zealand, or, the New Zealander’s first book. Ehara i te mea he tino pai te pukapuka, he iti noa ngā pūkenga wetewete reo o Te Kēnara.

Ka haere a Te Kēnara me Hongi Hika rāua ko tana whanaunga a Waikato ki Ingarangi kia kite i te tohunga wetereo, a Samuel Lee. Nō muri, nō te tau 1820 ka whakaputangia e Te Kēnara te pukapuka, A grammar and vocabulary of the language of New Zealand, te whakakaupapatanga ia o te reo Māori ā-tuhi.

I whakamātauria ngā tikanga nei e Te Rōpū Hāhi Mihinare (Church Missionary Society), me kī, e Te Wiremu (William Williams) rāua ko Te Manihera (Robert Maunsell). I te tau 1844 ko te putanga tuatahi o te papakupu a Wiremu. Tatū rawa ki ngā tau 2000 kāre kau i rerekē ngā tikanga mō te tuhi i te reo, i tua atu i te ‘wh’, i waiho noa ko te ‘w’ me tētahi tohu ki mua. I te putanga tuarua o te papakupu i te tau 1852 ka whakapūmautia te ‘wh’.

He mea nui te tuhi i te reo Māori

Ka tīmata te tauhokohoko a te Pākehā i ngā whenua o te Māori, ka nui atu te reo ka tuhia. Ko ētahi o ngā tuhinga tuatahi rawa i te reo Māori, i takea mai i ngā hokohokonga whenua. Ko tētahi atu tuhinga tōmua rawa ko te Paipera Tapu, he mea i whakapau kaha ngā mihinare kia wātea taua pukapuka ki ngā apataki Māori. I te tau 1834 ka tāngia He Whakaputanga o te Rangatiratanga o Nu Tirene ki te reo Māori, kātahi ka whakamāramatia ā-tuhitia ki te reo Ingarihi. He mea tito te tuhinga nei e ngā rangatira Māori o te raki hei tohu i tō rātou mana motuhake; i whai āwhina ngā rangatira i te mihinare a Te Karu Whā (Henry Williams) rāua ko te āpiha a te Kāwanatanga, a Te Puhipi (James Busby). Tae rawa ki te tau 1840, i whakapākehā te tokorua nei me ētahi atu i Te Tiriti o Waitangi.

Footnotes

The spread of English, 1840s to 1900

I ngā tau 1840 tae rawa ki te tau 1900, ko te reo Māori te reo whitiwhitinga kōrero ki ngā kāinga Māori puta noa i Aotearoa. Ka nui haere te iwi Pākehā, ka hōrapa te reo Pākehā, heoi, ka horapa ki roto te iwi Pākehā anake. Ka rangona ngā reo e rua i roto i ngā tauhokohokonga, ngā kaupapa mātauranga, me ngā mahi a te kāwanatanga.

Te Kōti Whenua Māori

I whakatūria Te Kōti Whenua Māori i ngā tau tekau o 1860, ā, ka whai āwhina ngā kaiwhakawā i ngā āteha Māori. I ngā nohoanga o te kōti, ka kōrero Māori ngā Māori, heoi, i te nuinga o te wā ka tuhia ngā meneti ki te reo Ingarihi. He maha ngā kaiwhakawā Pākehā i mōhio ki te reo me ngā tikanga a te Māori.

Te Pāremata me ngā ture

I te tau 1858 ka whakamanatia te Ture Native Districts Regulation me te Ture Native Circuit Courts, ko ngā ture tuatahi ake kia tāngia ki te reo Māori. I te tau 1865 ka whakaritea e te Pāremata, ko ngā pitihana kei roto i te reo Māori me whakapākehā, tāpiri atu, ko ngā pire ka ‘hāngai pū’ ki te Māori me tā ki te reo Pākehā ka huri ki te reo Māori. I te tau 1868, i te tuwheratanga o ngā tatau o te Pāremata ki ngā mema Māori, ka whakamāoritia ā-tuhitia ētahi o ngā tikanga whakahaere, tuhinga ōkawa hoki. Nō te tekau tau atu i 1880 ka tuhia ki te reo Māori ngā tikanga whakahaere o te Pāremata, ka tohungia hoki he kaiwhakamārama reo ā-waha, tae rawa ki te paunga o taua tekau tau kua toru ngā kaiwhakamāori ā-waha. I tēnā tau, i tēnā tau mai i 1889 ki 1910 ka whakaputangia i roto i te reo Māori he ture hāngai pū ki te Māori.

Ngā kura

I te tuwheratanga tuatahitanga o ngā kura a ngā mihinare, ko te reo Māori te reo whakaako. Heoi, i te tau 1847 ka takoto i a Tā Hōri Kerei (Sir George Grey) te Education Ordinance i mea ai me reo Pākehā ngā mahi me ngā kaupapa mātauranga. Whai muri ko te tino maha rawa atu o ngā ture mō te mātauranga ka tāmi i te reo Māori. Ka hāpaitia te mātauranga ka whakawhiwhia ki ngā Māori i ngā kura, hāunga te mea kei te takahia te mana o te reo e taua mātauranga. Hei tauira atu, tērā tētahi kaupapa here mai i te tau 1890, ko tōna whāinga mō ngā tamariki kōrero Māori, ka tae ana ki te mutunga o te kura, kia eke ko te reo Ingarihi to rātou reo matua.

I te tōmuatanga o te rau tau 1900 ka puta tētahi tikanga ako i ngā tamariki Māori, kīia ai ko te ‘torotika’ (me reo Ingarihi anake ngā akomanga, kaua rawa he kupu Māori e puta i te waha o te kaiwhakaako), ko te pae tawhiti o tēnei momo whakaako, kia reo Pākehā te reo o ngā ākonga. Kia tae ki te pokapū o te rau tau o 1800, kua nui atu te taupori Pākehā tērā i te taupori Māori. I te paheketanga o te taupori Māori, ka huri tuarā a tauiwi i te reo Māori.

Ngā mātātuhi a te Māori

I te rau tau o 1800 he nui ngā waiata, ngā haka, ngā whakapapa, ngā puakanga kōrero a te Māori i tuhia. I te tau 1853 ka whakaputangia Ko ngā moteatea, me ngā hakirara o ngā Māori, he kohinga waiata koroua. Ka whakaputangia i te tau 1854 Ko ngā mahinga a ngā tupuna Māori, he kohinga o ētahi pūrākau a te Māori i roto i te reo.

I te tau 1858 ka whakamāoritia, ka whakaputangia hoki a Robinson Crusoe ki te reo Māori. I te tau 1878 i whakaritea e Tā Hōri Kerei te whakamāoritanga o te hīmene God defend New Zealand nā Thomas Bracken i tito. He maha ngā nūpepa i tāngia ki te reo Māori; ko te mea tuatahi ko Te Karere o Niu Tireni i puta i te tau 1842. I te tīmatanga ka tautoko te kāwanatanga i ēnei nūpepa, nāwai ā, ka huri tonu ētahi tāngata Māori ki te whakatū i ā rātou ake nūpepa.


Language decline, 1900 to 1970s

Mai i te reo kotahi ki ngā reo e rua

I te tīmatanga o te rau tau mai i 1900, ko te reo Māori tonu te reo o te nuinga rawa atu o te iwi Māori. Ka haere te wā, ā, ka uru haere ko tērā o ngā reo. Tatū rawa ki ngā tau o 1930, noho ngātahi ai, noho taurite ai te whakamahinga o ngā reo e rua, arā, ko te reo Māori ki te kāinga me te marae, ko te reo Ingarihi i te kura me ngā whitiwhitinga kōrero me te kāwanatanga, ngā kaiwhakawhiwhi mahi hoki.

Hei ngā tau o te tekau tau o 1930 ka kōrero ētahi Pākehā mō te whai kia kotahi anake te reo. Inā rā te kupu i whakaputaina e te kaiwhakahaere mō ngā take mātauranga, a T.B. Strong i te tau 1930, ‘the natural abandonment of the native tongue inflicts no loss on the Maori’ (hauwarea ake te ngaronga o te reo, ehara i te mea kino mō te Māori)1. Ahakoa tērā, ka whakatenetene te Māori kia kōrero i tōna reo ki te kāinga. Waihoki ka noho te ao mātauranga hei papa e tutū ai te puehu mō ngā tikanga te take; ko ētahi Māori e mea ana kei te takahia te ahurea, te reo me te tuakiri Māori. He rite tonu te hahau i ngā tamariki Māori mō te kōrero i te reo i te kura te take.

Ka mimiti ngā tāngata kōrero

I ngā tau 1920 ki te 1960 ka mimiti ngā tāngata kōrero i te reo Māori. He take i pēnei ai. Ka heke te tokomaha o ngā tāne Māori i te matematenga ki ngā pakanga e rua o te ao. Tāpiri atu, i te nekehanga o te nui tāngata Māori ki ngā taone, ka tautokona te hanumitanga o ngā whānau Māori ki roto i te hapori nui, kīia ai tēnei he ‘pepper potting’. Ko te whāinga ia, kia whakanōhia te whānau Māori kotahi ki roto i te maha o ngā whānau tauiwi, kia aha ai, kia taunga ai kia whai pakiaka ai ngā whakaaro, te ahurea me te reo o te Pākehā ki roto aua whānau.

Ko te reo Ingarihi kei runga

Ka noho tuwhera te mātauranga a te Pākehā hei kuhunga mō ngā waiaro me ngā uara kino mō te reo Māori, nāwai ā, ka pakaru rawa ēnei kino ki roto ki ngā kāinga Māori. Taro ake, i runga i te titiro a te nui tāngata Māori, mā te reo Ingarihi anake ka puta te ihu o te tangata kia whiwhi ai ki ngā hua o te ao hurihuri nei.

Ngā take Māori ki ngā whare wānanga

I taua wā tonu kei te whakakaupapatia i ngā whare wānanga ngā akomanga mō ngā take Māori. Kua nui haere te iwi Māori kūare ki tō rātou reo me ngā tikanga, engari kei te kimi, kei te rangahau. Hāunga te mea nō te tau 1952 rā anō tīmata ai te ako i tētahi take Māori ki te Auckland University College; i te tau 1929 ka whakaae te University Of New Zealand Senate kia whai wāhi te reo Māori ki te Tohu Paetahi (Bachelor of Arts). Mai i te tau 1967 ka kuhuna ngā take Māori hei take i te whāinga o te Tohu Paetahi (Bachelor of Arts) ki Te Whare Wānanga o Te Ika-a-Māui (Victoria University) i Te Whanganui-a-Tara.

I te tau 1978 ka huakina ngā taumata o te Tohu Paerua ki ngā take Māori i ngā whare wānanga o Waikato me Wikitoria. I te tau 1981 ka tīmata te ako o te reo Māori ki Te Whare Wānanga o Otakou, heoi nō te tau 1990 rā anō ka tīmata te ako ki te taumata o te paerua. Ka tirohia ēnei kaupapa he kaupapa whakanui i te reo.

Ngā ākonga Māori kōrero reo Ingarihi

Kāore noa iho i roa te tūnga o ngā tari Māori, ka tīmata te taetae ake ki ngā whare wānanga, ko ngā ākonga Māori kāore e mōhio ana ki tō rātou reo. Ki ētahi o ēnei ākonga, ko te whare wānanga he waka hei ako i te reo me te ahurea, hei rongo hoki i te tuakiri Māori. He mahi nui ki te auaha i ngā akomanga mō ngā take Māori, kia hāngai ai ngā mahi mō te nui Māori kei te kuhu atu ki ngā whare wānanga engari he tauhou ki te ao o ngā whare wānanga.

Ka oreore ngā kaupapa tōrangapū

Waihoki, ka noho ngā whare wānanga hei taumata hāpai i ngā take tōrangapū a te Māori. Ka whānau mai a Ngā Tamatoa (ki Te Whare Wānanga o Tāmaki-makau-rau) me Te Rōpū Reo Māori (ki Te Whare Wānanga o Te Upoko o Te Ika a Māui) i te aranga ake o ngā take tōrangapū. Kīia ai ngā tekau tau o 1970 me 1980 ko ngā tau i maranga te ao Māori ki runga, me te aha, ko ngā ākonga i puta ō rātou ihu, ka huri ki te tohe mō te reo ka ngaro, ki te panoni i ngā waiaro mō te reo me ngā take pērā i te whenua me te Tiriti o Waitangi me ōna tika. Nā te mea i rongo tēnei hunga i te ngau kino o te kore mōhio ki te reo ka whawhai rātou kia arongia nuitia ai tōna tūranga e te taupori o Aotearoa.

Te pitihana mō te reo Māori

I te tau 1972 i kohia e Ngā Tamatoa ngā waitohu o ngā tāngata e 30,000 ki tētahi pitihana e wero ana i te Pāremata kia tahuri te kāwanatanga ki te ako i te reo ki ngā kura. I roto hoki taua rōpū i ngā nekenekehanga kia tohungia he Rā mō te Reo Māori, ā, nō te tau 1975 ka whakaroatia atu kia eke hei Wiki mō te Reo Māori. Kei te kaha tonu te Wiki mō te Reo Māori, mai i ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau mai i 2000 kua noho ko Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori hei whakatakoto i ngā kaupapa ka hāpaitia i roto i te wiki.

Footnotes
  1. T. B. Strong, ‘The education of South Sea Island natives.’ Kei Maori and education, or, The education of natives in New Zealand and its dependencies, ētita Patrick M. Jackson. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Ferguson & Osborn, 1931, wh. 193. Back

Revitalising te reo, 1970s and 1980s

Te reo i ngā kura tuarua

Nā te tutūnga o te puehu i te pitihana mō te reo Māori i te tau 1972, ka tāpaea te reo hei akomanga ki ētahi kura tuarua, heoi, i herea ēnei kura; e whā haora i te wiki ngā akomanga, ka mutu i aro kē ki te ako me te wetewete i te reo, kāore i kō atu. I te tau 1978 ka tuwhera Te Kura Reo Rua o Ruātoki; tae rawa ki te tau 1980 e whā ngā kura reo rua kua whai mana. I tino pai te haere o ēnei kura nō te mea i ahu mai i ngā hapori nui te kōrero i te reo. He reo Māori, reo Ingarihi ngā reo whakaako i te marautanga. Whāia, ka kitea te pakari o ngā ākonga Māori, i uru te hiahia kia whai i te mātauranga.

Te Ataarangi

Ko te tikanga ako a Te Ataarangi i te reo Māori, mā te whakamahi i ngā rākau karakara, i ahu mai i tāwāhi. Nā Caleb Gattegno o Ihipa, he tohunga mō te mātauranga, tēnei tikanga ako i whakahiato. Kātahi ka tangohia e Takuta Kataraina Te Heikōkō Mataira hei tikanga ako i te reo Māori. Ka mahi a Te Heikōkō i te taha o Ngoingoi Pewhairangi ki te whakaako i ētahi tāngata i tipu ake i roto i te reo kia kuhu ki ngā hapori Māori ki te ako i te hunga pakeke ki te kōrero Māori.

Ko te whāinga o Te Ataarangi kia tautoko kia hāpai i te kōrero Māori. Kei te akongia tonutia te reo mā te tikanga o Te Ataarangi i ēnei rā, puta noa i Aotearoa. He wāhi nui tō Te Ataarangi i roto i te whakaoranga o te reo ki roto i ngā kāinga. Nāwai ā, ka whanake Te Ataarangi mai i te mahi mō te kore utu i roto i ngā hapori, ki tētahi hotaka kei te whakaakongia tae rawa ki ngā whare wānanga.

Mai i te whānautanga mai

I te tau 1988 i te arotakenga o ngā kōhanga reo ka puta i tētahi kaumātua te kōrero, ‘Whānau ana te tamaiti, me rarau atu, whakamau ki te ū, kei reira ka tīmata ki te kōrero Māori’. 1

Te kōhanga reo

Ka pakari haere Te Ataarangi, ka paheke haere ko te reo Māori. I rangahaua e Richard Benton te oranga o te reo i te tekau tau mai i 1970; ko ngā whakakitenga o taua rangahau i mea, kei te tūpuhi te reo.

Ka karangahia he hui ki Waiwhetū ki Te Awakairangi mō koro mā, mō kui mā; karangahia ai ēnei hui ko ngā Hui Whakatauira. Ko te whakatau a te hui i mea, ki te ora te reo Māori me tīmata te akoako mai i te whānautanga o te tamaiti, koinei te pūtake o ngā kōhanga reo. Tērā te Hui Whakatauira tuatahi i te tau 1979, ka takoto ki reira te korero a Tā Hēmi Hēnare e wero ana i ngā kaumātua kia arongia nuitia te reo. I whakapūmautia tēnei oati i te wānanga o te tau 1980.

Ngā kaumātua me te kōhanga reo

Mai i te tīmatanga o te kōhanga reo ko ngā kaumātua kei waenganui pū o te kaupapa. Kei tōna pūtake ko ngā mōhiotanga o koro mā o kui mā. Nā rātou i hāpai te kuhunga o ngā kōhanga reo ki ngā hapori Māori. Nā rātou hoki te tikanga ako i whakatakoto kia noho ai hei akomanga Māori mā te whānau katoa. Nō te tau 1982 ka tū te kōhanga reo tuatahi ake ki Pukeatua takiwā ki Wainuiomata.

Kei te pūtake o ngā kōhanga reo ko te whānau me ngā tikanga. Ka akongia ngā tamariki e ngā pākeke me ngā koroua me ngā kuia, kia rumakina te tamaiti ki te reo, kia kaha hoki te kōrero i te reo ki roto i ngā kāinga. Ka akongia e ngā kōhanga reo ngā pākeke kāhore i matatau ki te kōrero Māori, e whai wāhi ai rātou ki roto i ngā akomanga o ā rātou tamariki.

Footnotes
    • Kathie Irwin, ‘The politics of kōhanga reo.’ Kei New Zealand education policy today: critical perspectives, ētita Sue Middleton, rāua ko John Codd, ko Alison Jones. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Allen & Unwin, 1990, wh. 115. Back

Ongoing work, 1980s to 2000s

Te kura kaupapa

Ka nui haere, ka nui haere ngā tamariki e putaputa ana i ngā kōhanga reo; waihoki, ka maranga ake ko ngā kura kaupapa ki te ako i ngā tamariki i roto i te reo Māori. Ko Te Kura Kaupapa Māori o Hoani Waititi ki te uru o Tamaki-makau-rau te kura kaupapa tuatahi. Ka whakahiatotia he marautanga hou mō ēnei tūmomo kura, kīia ai ko Te Aho Matua, hei aha, hei ara reo Māori tuwhera ki te hunga pīrangi kia akona ā rātou tamariki i roto katoa i te reo Māori. Taro ake, ko ngā whare kura (kura tuarua he reo Māori katoa) hei ara ki ngā tamariki mai ngā kura kaupapa.

Whakatupuranga Rua Mano

Nā Ahorangi Whatarangi Winiata i whakatakoto te mahere Whakatupuranga Rua Mano, he rautaki ki te whakaora i te reo ki roto o Ngāti Raukawa, Te Āti Awa me Ngāti Toarangatira. I taua wā, i roto i aua iwi, kāhore he tangata kotahi kei te kōrero Māori kei raro iho i te 30 tau te pakeke, whai anō te wehi kei mate te reo Māori pērā i te moa me te huia. Ko te whāinga ia o Whakatupuranga Rua Mano, mā roto i ngā wānanga kōrero i te reo Māori anake ka nui haere, ka nui haere te hunga kōrero i te reo Māori. Nāwai, ā, ka whakatūria ko Te Wānanga o Raukawa i te tau 1981; kāore i roa ka whai iho ko Te Whare Wānanga o Awaniuārangi me Te Wānanga o Aotearoa.

Te kerēme mō te reo Māori

I te tau 1984 ka whakatakotoria te kerēme a ngā Kaiwhakapūmau i te Reo Māori ki mua i te aroaro o Te Ropu Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi mo te reo kia whai mana i raro i te ture. Ko tēnei kereme a WAI 11 te tuatahi rawa o ngā kereme horapa ā-motu a te iwi Māori ki mua i te Taraipiunara; e whā wiki te roa o te nohoanga i te tau 1985. Nō te tau 1986 ka puta te whakatau a te Taraipiunara, e ai ki te wāhanga tuarua o Te Tiriti o Waitangi, he taonga te reo. Whāia, ko te Ture mo te Reo Māori i te tau 1987, ko tāna ko te whakamana i te reo Māori me te whakatū i Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori.

Ngā pāhotanga i te reo

I te tau 1987 ka tīmata ngā pāhotanga o Te Ūpoko o Te Ika, te reo irirangi Māori tuatahi; taro ake ka maranga ko te maha o ngā reo irirangi Māori. I te tekau tau mai i 1990 ka tahuri te kāwanatanga ki te hoko atu i ngā rawa pāpāho o te motu me te aha, ka maranga Te Kaunihera Māori o Aotearoa rāua ko ngā Kaiwhakapūmau i te Reo, ka haria te Karauna ki ngā koti o te motu, tae rawa atu ki Ingarangi ki te aroaro o Te Rūnanga Ruānuku a te Kuini (te Privy Council) 1. Ka whakaae te rūnanga rā kei te tūpuhi haere te reo Māori, me tahuri te Karauna ki te whakaora anō. Taihoa ake ka whakapanonitia e te Karauna Te Ture mō ngā Kaupapa Pāpāho (Broadcasting Amendment Act 1993), ka whakatūria hoki Te Māngai Pāho hei pūtea āwhina i ngā pāhotanga o te reo Māori me ōna tikanga. Nō ngā tau o te tekau tau mai i 2000, e rua tekau mā tahi ngā reo irirangi ā-iwi kei te pāho ki ngā tōpito katoa o te motu.

Ngā hōtaka Māori i te pouaka whakaata

Mō te wa roa kua kitea he hōtaka Māori i roto i ngā pāhotanga auraki i te pouaka whakaata, pērā i a Te karere, i a Waka huia me Marae kei Te Reo Tātaki o Aotearoa (Television New Zealand). I te tau 2004 ka whakatūria ko Whakaata Māori hei hāpai i ngā kaupapa whakaata i te reo Māori. Ka taka ngā tau e whā, ka puea ake te hōngere Te Reo i raro i ngā parirau o Whakaata Māori, ko ana kaupapa katoa kei roto i te reo. He wāhi nui tō ngā kaupapa pāpāho ki te hāpai me te whakaora i te reo Māori, tae rawa iho ki te hunga he uaua te whai hoa mōhio ki te kōrero Māori.

Te rautaki mō te reo Māori

Nō te tau 1997 ka takoto i te kāwanatanga te rautaki mō te reo Māori hei kōtuitui i ngā mahi i te rāngai reo Māori. Mā tēnei ka āhei Te Puni Kōkiri ki te rangahau i te ora o te reo me te nui o ngā tāngata mōhio ki te kōrero i te reo.

Ka aro te rautaki mō te reo Māori i ngā tau 2003 ki 2008 kia kaha atu te kōrero i te reo ki ētahi wāhi, me te whai kia kōrerotia te reo e te tini me te mano; heoi ko te whāinga nui i te rautaki kia kōrerotia noatia te reo e ngā whānau, ki roto i ngā kāinga me ngā hapori Māori. Tētahi atu whāinga kia nui te aro o te reo Māori e ngā tāngata puta noa i Aotearoa.2

I te tau 2010 ka whakatūria e te minita mō ngā take Māori tētahi rōpū hei arotake i te rāngai reo Māori me ngā pūtea mō te reo. Kāore i oti tana mahi, ka puta te pūrongo tōmua a Te Ropu Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi mō te kerēme WAI 262 e hāngai ana ki te reo Māori. Ko 2010 te tau ka puta te pūrongo Te reo mauriora, me ngā panonitanga ki te rautaki mō te reo Māori, e huri ai ngā kaupapa me ngā mahi ki te whakahoki anō i te reo ki roto i ngā hapori me ngā kāinga.

Footnotes
    • I takoto ki Ko Aotearoa tēnei: a report into claims concerning New Zealand law and policy affecting Māori culture and identity. Vol. 2. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Waitangi Tribunal, 2011, wh. 401. Back
    • Māori Language Strategy 2003–2008. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Te Puni Kōkiri, 2003, wh. 5. Back

Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Rawinia Higgins rāua ko Basil Keane, 'Te reo Māori', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-reo-maori/print (accessed 16 November 2019)

He kōrero nā Rawinia Higgins rāua ko Basil Keane, i tāngia i te 5 Sep 2013, updated 1 Sep 2015