Kōrero: Te reo Māori

Whārangi 3. Ka nui haere te reo o te Pākehā i ngā tau 1840 ki 1900

Ngā whakaahua

I ngā tau 1840 tae rawa ki te tau 1900, ko te reo Māori te reo whitiwhitinga kōrero ki ngā kāinga Māori puta noa i Aotearoa. Ka nui haere te iwi Pākehā, ka hōrapa te reo Pākehā, heoi, ka horapa ki roto te iwi Pākehā anake. Ka rangona ngā reo e rua i roto i ngā tauhokohokonga, ngā kaupapa mātauranga, me ngā mahi a te kāwanatanga.

Te Kōti Whenua Māori

I whakatūria Te Kōti Whenua Māori i ngā tau tekau o 1860, ā, ka whai āwhina ngā kaiwhakawā i ngā āteha Māori. I ngā nohoanga o te kōti, ka kōrero Māori ngā Māori, heoi, i te nuinga o te wā ka tuhia ngā meneti ki te reo Ingarihi. He maha ngā kaiwhakawā Pākehā i mōhio ki te reo me ngā tikanga a te Māori.

Te Pāremata me ngā ture

I te tau 1858 ka whakamanatia te Ture Native Districts Regulation me te Ture Native Circuit Courts, ko ngā ture tuatahi ake kia tāngia ki te reo Māori. I te tau 1865 ka whakaritea e te Pāremata, ko ngā pitihana kei roto i te reo Māori me whakapākehā, tāpiri atu, ko ngā pire ka ‘hāngai pū’ ki te Māori me tā ki te reo Pākehā ka huri ki te reo Māori. I te tau 1868, i te tuwheratanga o ngā tatau o te Pāremata ki ngā mema Māori, ka whakamāoritia ā-tuhitia ētahi o ngā tikanga whakahaere, tuhinga ōkawa hoki. Nō te tekau tau atu i 1880 ka tuhia ki te reo Māori ngā tikanga whakahaere o te Pāremata, ka tohungia hoki he kaiwhakamārama reo ā-waha, tae rawa ki te paunga o taua tekau tau kua toru ngā kaiwhakamāori ā-waha. I tēnā tau, i tēnā tau mai i 1889 ki 1910 ka whakaputangia i roto i te reo Māori he ture hāngai pū ki te Māori.

Ngā kura

I te tuwheratanga tuatahitanga o ngā kura a ngā mihinare, ko te reo Māori te reo whakaako. Heoi, i te tau 1847 ka takoto i a Tā Hōri Kerei (Sir George Grey) te Education Ordinance i mea ai me reo Pākehā ngā mahi me ngā kaupapa mātauranga. Whai muri ko te tino maha rawa atu o ngā ture mō te mātauranga ka tāmi i te reo Māori. Ka hāpaitia te mātauranga ka whakawhiwhia ki ngā Māori i ngā kura, hāunga te mea kei te takahia te mana o te reo e taua mātauranga. Hei tauira atu, tērā tētahi kaupapa here mai i te tau 1890, ko tōna whāinga mō ngā tamariki kōrero Māori, ka tae ana ki te mutunga o te kura, kia eke ko te reo Ingarihi to rātou reo matua.

I te tōmuatanga o te rau tau 1900 ka puta tētahi tikanga ako i ngā tamariki Māori, kīia ai ko te ‘torotika’ (me reo Ingarihi anake ngā akomanga, kaua rawa he kupu Māori e puta i te waha o te kaiwhakaako), ko te pae tawhiti o tēnei momo whakaako, kia reo Pākehā te reo o ngā ākonga. Kia tae ki te pokapū o te rau tau o 1800, kua nui atu te taupori Pākehā tērā i te taupori Māori. I te paheketanga o te taupori Māori, ka huri tuarā a tauiwi i te reo Māori.

Ngā mātātuhi a te Māori

I te rau tau o 1800 he nui ngā waiata, ngā haka, ngā whakapapa, ngā puakanga kōrero a te Māori i tuhia. I te tau 1853 ka whakaputangia Ko ngā moteatea, me ngā hakirara o ngā Māori, he kohinga waiata koroua. Ka whakaputangia i te tau 1854 Ko ngā mahinga a ngā tupuna Māori, he kohinga o ētahi pūrākau a te Māori i roto i te reo.

I te tau 1858 ka whakamāoritia, ka whakaputangia hoki a Robinson Crusoe ki te reo Māori. I te tau 1878 i whakaritea e Tā Hōri Kerei te whakamāoritanga o te hīmene God defend New Zealand nā Thomas Bracken i tito. He maha ngā nūpepa i tāngia ki te reo Māori; ko te mea tuatahi ko Te Karere o Niu Tireni i puta i te tau 1842. I te tīmatanga ka tautoko te kāwanatanga i ēnei nūpepa, nāwai ā, ka huri tonu ētahi tāngata Māori ki te whakatū i ā rātou ake nūpepa.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Rawinia Higgins rāua ko Basil Keane, 'Te reo Māori - Ka nui haere te reo o te Pākehā i ngā tau 1840 ki 1900', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-reo-maori/page-3 (accessed 24 August 2019)

Story by Rawinia Higgins rāua ko Basil Keane, published 5 Sep 2013, updated 1 Sep 2015