From the 1840s to 1900 te reo Māori was the language of communication within Māori communities in New Zealand. As European settlement continued, the use of English spread, but only in European communities. There was occasional crossover between the two languages relating to trade, education, work or government activities.
Native Land Court
The Native Land Court was set up in the 1860s, with judges assisted by Māori assessors. In the proceedings Māori generally spoke in te reo, while minutes were usually written in English. Many of the judges, who were Pākehā, had knowledge of Māori language and culture.
Parliament and legislation
In 1858 the Native Districts Regulation Act and the Native Circuit Courts Act were the first government acts to be printed in Māori. In 1865 standing orders of Parliament provided that petitions in te reo needed to be translated into English as well, and that bills ‘specially affecting’ Māori should be translated and printed in Māori. In 1868, due to the incoming Māori members of Parliament, basic parliamentary practice was translated into Māori and so were certain papers. In 1880 Parliament's standing orders were printed in Māori, and an interpreter was appointed, increasing to three interpreters over the decade. Each year from 1889 to 1910 a series of acts relevant to Māori were printed in te reo.
While missionary schools had operated in Māori through necessity, this soon changed. Sir George Grey introduced the Education Ordinance 1847, which required that education be carried out in English. This was followed by a proliferation of legislation and education policy that has had a colossal negative impact on the Māori language. The supposed civilising mission of schooling openly promoted the devaluing of te reo. For example, the aim of an 1890 policy was to ensure that children whose first language was Māori would have it replaced by English by the time they left school.
The adoption in the early 1900s of the ‘direct method’ (where the teacher avoids using the learner’s native language) signalled a means to an English-speaking end. By the mid-19th century the Pākehā population was greater than the Māori population. Numbers of Māori continued to fall, and non-Māori no longer saw the need to learn Māori.
In the 19th century much oral literature was written down. In 1853 Ko nga moteatea, me nga hakirara o nga Maori was published, containing a number of traditional waiata (songs). In 1854 Ko nga mahinga a nga tupuna Maori, a series of traditional Māori stories in te reo, was published.
In 1858 Robinson Crusoe was translated into Māori and published. In 1878 Sir George Grey organised the translation of Thomas Bracken’s hymn ‘God defend New Zealand’ into Māori. Starting with Te Karere o Nui Tireni in 1842, a large number of Māori-language newspapers were published. Initially they were government-sponsored, but later a number were published privately by Māori.