Kapa haka means traditional Māori dances performed by a group standing in rows. Iwi reputations were based on their ability to perform haka and the expertise of the haka leader.
There are many different types of haka, appropriate for different occasions. Waiata, karanga (art of calling), pao (short impromptu topical songs) and whaikōrero (formal speech-making) are important features of kapa haka. These items resemble customs carried out in formal settings on marae.
In tradition, the first kapa haka was associated with Tinirau, who told a group of women to perform for his enemy, Kae.
19th-century kapa haka
Christian missionaries tried to stop Māori practising haka, waiata and sacred chants. They encouraged Māori to sing hymns to European melodies instead.
In the 1880s kapa haka began performing for tourists, often using European melodies with Māori words. Some concert groups toured overseas.
Important visitors such as the British royal family were welcomed with traditional ceremonies, including haka. Kapa haka was also featured at celebrations of Māori organisations such as the Ringatū Church and the Kīngitanga (Māori King movement).
In the early 20th century kapa haka began performing modern waiata-ā-ringa (action songs). Many new songs were written around that time.
During the First World War, Māori leader Apirana Ngata of Ngāti Porou encouraged kapa haka to raise money for the Maori Soldiers’ Fund. He collected many traditional waiata and kōrero.
Kapa haka attire combines traditional Māori clothing with modern garments. These include piupiu (flax kilts), pari (bodices), tātua (belts) and tīpare (headbands). Kapa haka often use Western instruments, mostly guitars.
Urban groups and competitions
As Māori moved to the cities, kapa haka were formed in urban areas. They helped people connect with their culture, and preserved Māori language and customs. Many urban groups involved a number of different iwi.
A kapa haka competition was held at the 1934 Waitangi Day celebrations. There were contests around the country, and in 1972 the first Polynesian Festival was held. From 1983 it was a Māori-only competition. Called Te Matatini from 2004, this national competition is held every two years and attracts more than 40 competing teams, 2,000 performers and an in-person audience of 30,000, with many more watching online.
Kapa haka in the 21st century
In the 2000s kapa haka was offered as a subject in universities, and practised in schools, and by other institutions such as the military. It continued to evolve, with haka and waiata being written on contemporary and political subjects.