At the time that Europeans settled in New Zealand, British and European cities were crowded and polluted. Green spaces were seen as important for health, allowing people to relax, walk, play sport and breathe fresh air. Most of New Zealand’s planned settlements set aside land for parks and town belts.
Town belts are large, tree-filled areas that encircle cities and are protected from development. Town belts were set aside in Wellington and Dunedin, and still exist today. In the early years, they were used for grazing cattle and getting firewood as well as for recreation.
Parks and domains
Large parks were created in Auckland and Christchurch in the mid-19th century. Many smaller centres, such as Masterton, New Plymouth and Invercargill, also had parks early on.
In the 20th century, people in cities had more time for leisure. Local councils developed more parks in suburban areas. State housing schemes also included green spaces for residents and their children to play and relax in.
Regional parks are large open areas, mostly near cities. They are used for walking, farming, forestry and conservation.
New green spaces
New types of green space in cities include:
- community gardens, where a group of people plant a garden together
- roof gardens, which have plants growing in beds or pots, or on a special roof surface
- wildlife sanctuaries, which protect native plants and animals.
From the late 19th century, people joined together to take care of green spaces in cities. They worked to protect native bush and to plant trees on bare land.
Today some groups look after green spaces by planting trees, removing weeds and pests, and running guided tours.