Kōrero: Te noho whare

Whārangi 2. Ngā whare me te hauora

Ngā whakaahua

Ngā tūāhua horoi

I te wā o te koroni ka noho te nuinga o te iwi Māori ki ngā kāinga taiwhenua. Ahakoa kua pakari haere te āheinga ārai mate o te tinana Māori ki ētahi o ngā mate i mauria mai e te Pākehā, ngau tonu ai ngā mate huakita pērā i te taipoi pīwa me te mate kohi; me ngā mate huaketo pērā i te rewharewha, ki te Māori me te Pākehā hoki. I horapa ēnei mate i te kore kai i ngā kai hauora, i te nōhanga kerakera, me te noho kōpā.

Nō te whakaurunga o ngā paipa inu me ngā paipa paratūtae ki raro i te whenua o ngā tāone, ka heke haere ngā momo mate huakita. Nō te korekore o ēnei tūāhua ki ngā kāinga Māori ka pakaru mai ngā tahumaero ki ngā kāinga. Ko te whakapae a te kāwanatanga he huakore ngā kai, he kerakera te noho (ka rere te taipoi ki te tūkinotia ngā punawai), he kaha rawa hoki te Māori ki te whakatū kāinga ki ngā papa hāhaka, ki ngā whenua reporepo rānei.

Ngā kirikā

I te tau 1880 ka whakahoki kōrero te āpiha o te Tai Tokerau, e 20 ngā tamariki i mate i te piwa i roto o te Rarawa i ngā marama o Mahuru me Whiringa-ā-nuku. I whakamārama anō ia ko te kōanga te kaupeka o te tau e tino ngau ai te mate piwa; nō muri tonu i te hōtoke, i te wā o te tūpuhi. ‘Nā te kore hauhau o ngā whare, te haukū, te kōtē, me te paruheti, ka hua ko te tahumaero.’1

Te uru mai o te kāwanatanga

Ka taka te wā, ā, ka uru mai te kāwanatanga. Nō te tau 1900 ka hangaia ngā kaunihera Māori hei whakaū i ngā ture mā ki ngā kāinga Māori. Ko 1901 te tau ka uru a Māui Pōmare hei āpiha hauora Māori tuatahi. Ko tētahi mana ōna he whakatau kō ēhea ngā whare kia turakina. E rua tau i muri mai ka tīmata te haere a ngā kaitirotiro ki te whakatewhatewha i te hauora mā o ngā whare huri noa. Mā ia kaitirotiro hoki e tuhi te rahi o ngā whare ka turakina, ka whakatūria hoki ki tōna takiwā.

I roto i te rima tau tae noa ki te tau 1909, e 1,256 ngā whare i turakina; e 2,103 ngā whare rākau hou i hangaia huri noa. Ko te katoa nā te Māori i utu. E kī ana tētahi kaitirotiro, ‘Ko te huarahi o nāianei ko te “whare pakeha”.2 Ka amine tonu tētahi kaiketu ki ngā whanaketanga, engari ka tohe rawa ia ‘noho tonu ai te nuinga o te Māori ki ngā wharepuni kore hauhau, auahi tupeka’. Ka whakatepe ia me rangahau te kaupapa tae noa ki tōna hōhonutanga.3

Ngā kaupapa whare hou

Ka tino hāua ko te iwi Māori e te mate rewharewha o te tau 1918 – e 4.5 te whakareatanga ake o ngā mate Māori i ērā o te Pākehā – nō konei ka hua ake ētahi kaupapa hou hei whakapai ake i te noho o ngā whare me te hauora o ngā kāinga. I roto i te kaupapa whanake whenua Māori o ngā tau 1920 te ture i whakaaetia ai te whakatūnga o ētahi whare hou. Nā te Ture Whare Māori i te tau 1935, ka tukuna te pūtea taurewa 750 pāuna ki ngā kaitono whai whenua, whai pūtea hoki. Nō te tau 1938 ka whakarerekētia te ture, ā, ka taka iho ai te 50,000 pāuna mō te rawakore e pīrangi ana ki te whakatū whare.

He mea toko ēnei kaupapa i runga i te mātāpono ko te tangata tonu tōna anō kaiawhi; arā, ko ngā āwhina he pūtea taurewa noa iho. Kāre he take o ēnei kaupapa, nā te iti o ngā ratonga ki ēnei kaupapa ka tahi; nā ngā uauatanga taitara whenua Māori (he maha ngā kaipupuri ki te taitara kotahi) ka rua; ka toru, kāore te Māori i āhei ki te utu i ngā pūtea taurewa, he rawakore nō rātou. Nā whai anō ko te nuinga o ngā whare he mea hanga i raro i ngā kaupapa whanake whenua Māori (e 1,244 tae noa ki te tau 1940), kāre i raro i te Kaupapa Whakatū Whare (e 368 noa iho tae noa ki te tau 1940).

Te rangahau whare

I te tau 1933 ka whakahaere a Tākuta Harold Turbot i tāna rangahau ki te rohe o Waiapu ki te Tai Rāwhiti. Ka kite ia e 60 ōrau o ngā whare he kōpā te noho; 50 ōrau kua kino te wai; 50 ōrau o ngā rua wharepaku kei te raru katoa; e 30 ōrau kāore he wharepaku; e 6 ōrau noa iho ngā whare i whai tāpu, oko horoi hoki.

Ngā hoahoa whare

Nō te Tari Mahi te nuinga o ngā hoahoa whare i hangaia. Hei whakaheke i ngā utu, e rua noa iho ngā rūma o ngā whare, ā, nā ngā kaimahi Māori (te hunga koremahi) kē i hanga. Nō ngā tau 1920 tēnei tauira whare, ā, i tino rerekē rawa te āhua i ngā whare kāwanatanga i hangaia mō ngā Pākehā. Nā te whāiti o ngā whare, kāore i pai mō te reanga whānau. Kīhai hoki te kāwanatanga i pīrangi kia mātotoru te noho a ngā whānau Māori ki te whare kotahi.

Ngā raru whare

Kīhai ngā kaupapa whare i whakatika i ngā raruraru. I te tau 1939 neke atu i te haurua o te Māori kīhai i whai whare tōtika; neke atu i te 4 miriona pāuna (e 373.3 miriona i ēnei rā) te tāpeke utu hei rongoā i te mate. I taua wā e noho rawakore tonu ana te Māori ki ngā tūāhua haumate, e 7 whakareatanga ake ngā mate kohi Māori i ō te Pākehā. Ko te whakahau a te māngai o te Tai Rāwhiti a Tiaki Ōmana; kei te Māori ngā ngāherehere, arā, ngā rākau hei hanga whare, engari kāore he huruhuru hei mira i ngā rākau; ā, ka tonoa anō te kāwanatanga kia whakataka anō he pūtea mō te kaupapa whare mō te iwi Māori.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Appendices to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1880, G-4, p. 2. Back
  2. Raeburn Lange, May the people live: a history of Maori health development 19001920. Auckland: Auckland University Press, 1999, p. 152. Back
  3. Wanganui Herald, 12 Jul 1909, p. 4. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Ben Schrader, 'Te noho whare - Ngā whare me te hauora', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-noho-whare/page-2 (accessed 18 September 2019)

Story by Ben Schrader, published 5 Sep 2013