Kōrero: Te noho whare

Whārangi 1. Mai i te wharepuni ki te whare Pākehā

Ngā whakaahua

Ngā whare i mua i te taenga mai o tauiwi

E ai ki ngā taunaki mai i te putunga para i Palliser Bay ki te taha tonga o Wairarapa, ka noho pātata te Māori ki ngā pātaka kai o ngā awa, ngā tāhuna me ngā ngahere. He tapawhā roa te hanga o ngā whare, anō nei te āhua ko ērā i Hawaiki. Ka kune mai i ēnei whare ko te wharepuni Māori. He nōhanga tūturu te kāinga i huraina ki Palliser Bay, engari ka noho tonu te iwi ki ngā kāinga roharohai, i ā rātou nekeneke haere, te whai haere i ngā marama o te tau.

I te tau 1769 ka kite a Kāpene Kuki i ngā Māori e noho ana ki ngā pā tūwatawata. He pērā rawa te kaitā ka kī ētahi he tāone te kaitā o ēnei pā – e ai ki te kōrero e 500 te rahi o ngā whare o tētahi pā. He noho ā-whānau, ā-hapū hoki te noho a te Māori i taua wā. Ka mutu ko ētahi anō whare he pātaka, he kāuta, he wharenui hoki i ētahi wā. Ko te tino whare o te wā ko te wharepuni.

He tomokanga tapu

He tohu whakahirahira te tomo i te kūwaha me te pare o te whare. Kei te pare ngā whakairo mō Ranginui rāua ko Papatūānuku, ka mutu kei runga ko ngā whakairo wahine hei whakawātea i ngā tapu o te tangata. Ko ētahi atu whakairo i ngā pare, he tīpuna tapu, he kaitiaki whare.

Te Wharepuni

Mō te nuinga, e 1.5 mita-2 te whāroa; ki te 1 mita te whānui o te wharepuni. He tihi tō ngā tuanui (ka heke i ngā taha), he mahau, tae atu ki tētahi takuahi. He hahaka ngā kūwaha, he matapihi ō ētahi, kāore he matapihi o ētahi atu. Kāti ko te nuinga ka hangā ki te papa rākau, te raupō, te ponga, te kiri, tae atu ki te tuanui. He mea heipū te one ki muri i ngā pakitara, ā, i runga rā anō i te tuanui hei pupuri i te whare. Ko te papa oneone kei raro e tapoko ana. Kotahi te wāhi, kotahi tonu te huarahi mā waenganui tae atu ki te takuahi; kei ngā tara ā-whare ngā wāhi moe. Kāore he huarahi o ngā wharepuni iti. Ko te whakamahau te wāhi mahi, kōrerorero hoki, ā, hei reira whakatauria ai te manuhiri me te mahi i ngā mahi o ia rā kīhai i taea i roto i te whare, pērā i te kai.

Ko tētahi atu momo wharepuni ka tū kau noa kāore ōna pakitara oneone. He mea hanga ēnei whare ki ngā rauemi ngāwari, pērā i te raupō me te kiri rākau. Nō muri i te taenga mai o tauiwi ka whai hiranga tēnei momo whare.

Ngā whakawai a te Pākehā

Mai i ngā tau tuatahi o te rautau 1800 ka kawea mai e te Pākehā āna hoahoa whare. Nō konā ka whai rūma ngā whare, arā, he kīhini, he wāhi noho, he rūma moe, he aha atu, he aha atu. Heoi, arā tonu ētahi rangatira Māori i kapo atu i te āhua noho a te Pākehā. Ko te rangatira o Ngāpuhi, ko Rāwiri Taiwhanga, te Māori tuatahi kia noho i roto i tētahi whare Pākehā, arā, ki Paihia, i te takiwā o te tau 1831. I ngā tau o 1850 ka noho te rangatira o Te Āti Awa a Wiremu Tako Ngātata (ko Wī Tako) ki tōna whare Pākehā ki te pā o Ngāūranga ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara.

I te tau 1892 ka puta te pūrongo a te āpiha kāwanatanga mō te hunga Māori waihanga whare rākau. ‘He āwangawanga te Māori ki te noho i roto i te whare rākau, inā hoki ka māharahara tōna hinengaro (me tōna tinana) ki tōna noho. Kāore e taea te noho i te taha o te ahi, pērā i te noho i te taha o ngā takuahi o ngā whare Māori. Kāore e tau te noho i roto i te whare Pākehā pērā i tana noho ki ngā whāriki o ngā whare Māori.’1

Heoi ka noho te nuinga o ngā Māori ki roto i ngā wharepuni. Mai i te tekau tau 1870 ka tīmata te whakamahi i ngā papanga Pākehā, pērā i ngā kakau (knobs), ngā nēra, ngā papa rākau kani, ngā papa maitai (mō ngā tihi o ngā tuanui) me ngā matapihi rehurehu. I waenganui i te tekau tau 1880 ka tīmata te whakamahi i ngā timera, ngā pakitara me ngā kūwaha teitei. Nō te tāpiritanga o ngā timera ka āhei te tunu kai i roto. Orua mai ko ngā kūwaha i te taha o te whare ka puta ki tētahi parani. He ōrite tēnei tauira ki ngā whare Pākehā me ngā tomokanga o ngā wharau, arā, he momo wharepuni.

Ngā rerekētanga ā-rohe

Mai i te tekau tau 1870, ka akiaki te kāwanatanga i ngā hapori Māori kia hanga i ngā whare rākau, me te meatanga atu he pai ake te āhua, mō te hauora hoki. I te tau 1882 ka puta te pūrongo a te kāwanatanga mō ngā whare hou ki ngā kāinga Māori ki Waitaha me Ōtākou ‘kua hanga katoatia ngā whare ki te rākau, ā, e toru, e whā rānei ngā rūma, kotahi te kīhini … he tino tau ngā nōhanga.’2 Nō te tau 1886 he ‘tino tau’ ngā whare papa rākau i ngā kāinga o Te Oreore me Pāpāwai.3 Nō te rautau 1900 rawa i whakamahi ētahi Māori o rohe kē i ngā whare Pākehā.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Timaru Herald, 31 Aug 1892, p. 4. Back
  2. Appendices to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1881, G-8, p. 16. Back
  3. Appendices to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1886, G-1, p. 17. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Ben Schrader, 'Te noho whare - Mai i te wharepuni ki te whare Pākehā', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-noho-whare/page-1 (accessed 26 June 2019)

Story by Ben Schrader, published 5 Sep 2013