Kōrero: Te noho whare

Whārangi 3. Te noho tāone

Ngā whakaahua

He hekenga Māori hou

Nā te tō o ngā ‘rama nui’ o te auahi nui ka tīmata te Māori ki te heke ki Tāmaki-makaurau me Te Whanganui-a-Tara i ngā tau mai i 1920.  Engari he maha ngā uauatanga o te kimi nōhanga i te tāone. Nā ngā whakaaro a ngāi Pākehā mō te Māori, arā, he hunga noho kōpā, kore tiaki i ō rātou whare, kīhai ngā kaipupuri whare i pīrangi ki ngā kainoho Māori. E ai ki a James Rukutoki i te hui taumata i te tau 1939, ‘ko ngā toenga whare a ngā Pākehā anake ka mahue ki ngā Māori.’1

Taro kau iho i te tineitanga o te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao ka tokomaha ake ngā heke ki ngā tāone. Ko te nuinga ka tau atu ki ngā takiwā manawa tāone pērā i Freemans Bay (Tāmaki-makaurau) me Newtown (Te Whanganui-a-Tara). Heoi, ka noho pipiri ngā Māori o ēnei hapori, ā, ka tauawhitia tētahi e ērā kua roa kē e noho ana i te tāone. He mea mīharo tonu ki ngā Māori o Freemans Bay, tērā te noho tata ki ngā whare whakangahau o te pūtahi tāone tae atu ki te Whare Hapori Māori. Koinei ngā wāhi makau a te iwi Māori i muri i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao.

Ngā taiwhanga whare

He tini te iwi noho tāone ka noho ki ngā whare koroua i wāhia hei taiwhanga noho. E ai ki te rangahau o te tau 1951 tērā ētahi whānau Māori e whā, neke atu rānei ngā tamariki e noho ana ki te taiwhanga noho kotahi, e rua noa iho rānei ngā rūma. He rite tonu te tunu i runga i te tōhi primus, ā, kotahi te rūma horoi mō ngā kainoho tokomaha. He itiiti noa ka whai ahi hiko. Arā tētahi i ō wai i runga i ngā arawhata poupou.

Nga hōtera Māori

Nō te ekenga o te mahi a te rangatahi Māori ki ngā tāone ka hangaia ngā hōtera Māori mō te hunga rangatahi i eke ki te pakeke mahi. He wāhi haumaru, he wāhi whakahoahoa, he wāhi ako hoki ki ngā āhuatanga o te noho tāone.

Ngā whare kāwanatanga

Kīhai te ture i aukati i te whai wāhi o te Māori ki ngā whare reti kāwanatanga, engari ana ko ngā pōhēhē kē a ngā āpiha mō te Māori; tērā he hunga pūkoro pakaru, whakaheke i te kounga o ngā wāhi whare kāwanatanga. Nō te tau 1944 he kaupapa kē, arā mā te Wāhanga Whakatū Whare a te kāwanatanga ngā whare e whakatū i raro i te whakahaere a te Tari Māori me te Kaporeihana o ngā whanaketanga a te Kāwanatanga.

Hei akiaki i te noho tahi me te Pākehā, ka waimehatia ngā whānau Māori ki ngā tiriti a ngā whānau Pākehā. (Ko Waiwhetū ki Awakairangi tētahi o ngā takiwā ruarua kāore i pērā te whakawaimeha i te Māori. Ka whakatūria ngā whare kāwanatanga huri noa i te marae, ka noho pipiri tonu ngā whānau Māori.) Engari ana mai i te tau 1948 ki te tau 1954 e 97 noa iho ngā whare i whakatūhia ki ngā wāhi Māori e te Wāhanga Whakatū Whare.

I te pito o te tekau tau 1950 ka whakakorea tērā o ngā ture, ā, ka hūtia ngā whānau Māori i Freemans Bay ki Ōtara noho ai. Mai i te tekau tau 1960 ka puea ake ngā hapori Māori ki ngā takiwā whare kāwanatanga o Porirua (Te Whanganui-a-Tara) me Aranui (Ōtautahi).

Pūtea taurewa whare

Ka āhei anō te Māori ki ngā pūtea taurewa (me te huamoni iti) a te Tari Māori mō te hanga whare. Me whai poraka whenua kē te kaitono, me hora mai tāna moni tāpui, kia kaha hoki ki te utu i te mōkete 25 tau. Tērā ētahi Māori i āhei ki tēnei kaupapa, ā, ka waihangatia ō rātou kāinga.

Ngā hoahoa

Tē arohia te tikanga Māori i te whakatūnga o ngā whare hou mō ngā Māori nā te aro kē a te kāwanatanga ki te whakawaimeha i te Māori ki roto i te ao Pākehā. Nō konei he mea whakaware te wehe i te tapu me te noa, pērā i te whakatū mīhini kaka ki te taha o te oko kīhini. He aha te aha. Ka urutau te Māori i āna tikanga ki roto i ōna whare. Hei tauira, nō mua i te hanganga o ngā marae tāone, ko te heri tūpāpaku ki ngā kāinga takoto ai.

Te noho marae

Nā runga i te huatau o te manaakitanga ka whakatuwhera te Māori i tōna kāinga ki te tangata, ahakoa te kōpā o tōna noho. I ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau 1990 ka mea te wahine ki te kairangahau ‘tērā tō mātou whare rūma kotahi, 16 mātou tōpū ka noho i reira … ka whakapaia te karāti hei rūma moe, ā, nā taku tungāne te hēte taputapu i panoni hei rūma moe anō…aii te weriweri hoki o taua kerewēne.’2

Ka mau tonu te ruarua o ngā whare tōtika

E ai ki te rangahau i te tekau tau 1980 ko te wawata o te nuinga o ngāi Māori ko tētahi whare, engari i te tau 1986, kei raro te tatauranga kaipupuri whare Māori i tērā o tauiwi – arā, e 49 ōrau o te hunga Māori; e 73 ōrau o tauiwi i whai whare. Ko ētahi take i pērā ai ko te iti o te utu mahi, ko te tokomaha ake e noho koremahi ana, me te kaitā o ngā whānau.

He nui tonu te iwi Māori ka noho kōpāpā. Ko ngā take he pai ake ki te noho ā-whānau, he tītari haere i ngā utu, he kaikiri tonu nō ngā kaipupuri whare ki ngā kainoho Māori. Ko te whakapae a ngā kairangahau i hapa ngā kaupapa whare a te Pākehā, kāti mā te Māori anō e urupare tēnei raru.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Auckland Star, 27 May 1939, p. 8. Back
  2. Maori Women’s Housing Research Project. For the sake of decent shelter. Wellington: Housing Corporation of New Zealand, 1991, p. 21. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Ben Schrader, 'Te noho whare - Te noho tāone', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-noho-whare/page-3 (accessed 22 May 2019)

Story by Ben Schrader, published 5 Sep 2013