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Māori housing – te noho whare

by Ben Schrader

He noho tahi te Māori i mua, he moe tahi hoki ki roto i ōna wharepuni. Ka noho, ka noho, kātahi anō te Māori ka hiko ki ngā taonga whare a te Pākehā; engari tokomaha kīhai i whai wāhi ki ngā whare papai. I te tau ruamano, inā noa te mahi a te Māori kāore ō rātou whare ake, ka mutu he kino ake i ērā o tauiwi. Tērā ētahi tūmomo kaupapa whare tae atu ki ngā pāhekoheko i waenganui i te kāwanatanga me ngā iwi Māori.


Wharepuni to European house

Ngā whare i mua i te taenga mai o tauiwi

E ai ki ngā taunaki mai i te putunga para i Palliser Bay ki te taha tonga o Wairarapa, ka noho pātata te Māori ki ngā pātaka kai o ngā awa, ngā tāhuna me ngā ngahere. He tapawhā roa te hanga o ngā whare, anō nei te āhua ko ērā i Hawaiki. Ka kune mai i ēnei whare ko te wharepuni Māori. He nōhanga tūturu te kāinga i huraina ki Palliser Bay, engari ka noho tonu te iwi ki ngā kāinga roharohai, i ā rātou nekeneke haere, te whai haere i ngā marama o te tau.

I te tau 1769 ka kite a Kāpene Kuki i ngā Māori e noho ana ki ngā pā tūwatawata. He pērā rawa te kaitā ka kī ētahi he tāone te kaitā o ēnei pā – e ai ki te kōrero e 500 te rahi o ngā whare o tētahi pā. He noho ā-whānau, ā-hapū hoki te noho a te Māori i taua wā. Ka mutu ko ētahi anō whare he pātaka, he kāuta, he wharenui hoki i ētahi wā. Ko te tino whare o te wā ko te wharepuni.

He tomokanga tapu

He tohu whakahirahira te tomo i te kūwaha me te pare o te whare. Kei te pare ngā whakairo mō Ranginui rāua ko Papatūānuku, ka mutu kei runga ko ngā whakairo wahine hei whakawātea i ngā tapu o te tangata. Ko ētahi atu whakairo i ngā pare, he tīpuna tapu, he kaitiaki whare.

Te Wharepuni

Mō te nuinga, e 1.5 mita-2 te whāroa; ki te 1 mita te whānui o te wharepuni. He tihi tō ngā tuanui (ka heke i ngā taha), he mahau, tae atu ki tētahi takuahi. He hahaka ngā kūwaha, he matapihi ō ētahi, kāore he matapihi o ētahi atu. Kāti ko te nuinga ka hangā ki te papa rākau, te raupō, te ponga, te kiri, tae atu ki te tuanui. He mea heipū te one ki muri i ngā pakitara, ā, i runga rā anō i te tuanui hei pupuri i te whare. Ko te papa oneone kei raro e tapoko ana. Kotahi te wāhi, kotahi tonu te huarahi mā waenganui tae atu ki te takuahi; kei ngā tara ā-whare ngā wāhi moe. Kāore he huarahi o ngā wharepuni iti. Ko te whakamahau te wāhi mahi, kōrerorero hoki, ā, hei reira whakatauria ai te manuhiri me te mahi i ngā mahi o ia rā kīhai i taea i roto i te whare, pērā i te kai.

Ko tētahi atu momo wharepuni ka tū kau noa kāore ōna pakitara oneone. He mea hanga ēnei whare ki ngā rauemi ngāwari, pērā i te raupō me te kiri rākau. Nō muri i te taenga mai o tauiwi ka whai hiranga tēnei momo whare.

Ngā whakawai a te Pākehā

Mai i ngā tau tuatahi o te rautau 1800 ka kawea mai e te Pākehā āna hoahoa whare. Nō konā ka whai rūma ngā whare, arā, he kīhini, he wāhi noho, he rūma moe, he aha atu, he aha atu. Heoi, arā tonu ētahi rangatira Māori i kapo atu i te āhua noho a te Pākehā. Ko te rangatira o Ngāpuhi, ko Rāwiri Taiwhanga, te Māori tuatahi kia noho i roto i tētahi whare Pākehā, arā, ki Paihia, i te takiwā o te tau 1831. I ngā tau o 1850 ka noho te rangatira o Te Āti Awa a Wiremu Tako Ngātata (ko Wī Tako) ki tōna whare Pākehā ki te pā o Ngāūranga ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara.

I te tau 1892 ka puta te pūrongo a te āpiha kāwanatanga mō te hunga Māori waihanga whare rākau. ‘He āwangawanga te Māori ki te noho i roto i te whare rākau, inā hoki ka māharahara tōna hinengaro (me tōna tinana) ki tōna noho. Kāore e taea te noho i te taha o te ahi, pērā i te noho i te taha o ngā takuahi o ngā whare Māori. Kāore e tau te noho i roto i te whare Pākehā pērā i tana noho ki ngā whāriki o ngā whare Māori.’1

Heoi ka noho te nuinga o ngā Māori ki roto i ngā wharepuni. Mai i te tekau tau 1870 ka tīmata te whakamahi i ngā papanga Pākehā, pērā i ngā kakau (knobs), ngā nēra, ngā papa rākau kani, ngā papa maitai (mō ngā tihi o ngā tuanui) me ngā matapihi rehurehu. I waenganui i te tekau tau 1880 ka tīmata te whakamahi i ngā timera, ngā pakitara me ngā kūwaha teitei. Nō te tāpiritanga o ngā timera ka āhei te tunu kai i roto. Orua mai ko ngā kūwaha i te taha o te whare ka puta ki tētahi parani. He ōrite tēnei tauira ki ngā whare Pākehā me ngā tomokanga o ngā wharau, arā, he momo wharepuni.

Ngā rerekētanga ā-rohe

Mai i te tekau tau 1870, ka akiaki te kāwanatanga i ngā hapori Māori kia hanga i ngā whare rākau, me te meatanga atu he pai ake te āhua, mō te hauora hoki. I te tau 1882 ka puta te pūrongo a te kāwanatanga mō ngā whare hou ki ngā kāinga Māori ki Waitaha me Ōtākou ‘kua hanga katoatia ngā whare ki te rākau, ā, e toru, e whā rānei ngā rūma, kotahi te kīhini … he tino tau ngā nōhanga.’2 Nō te tau 1886 he ‘tino tau’ ngā whare papa rākau i ngā kāinga o Te Oreore me Pāpāwai.3 Nō te rautau 1900 rawa i whakamahi ētahi Māori o rohe kē i ngā whare Pākehā.

Footnotes
    • Timaru Herald, 31 Aug 1892, p. 4. Back
    • Appendices to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1881, G-8, p. 16. Back
    • Appendices to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1886, G-1, p. 17. Back

Whare and health

Ngā tūāhua horoi

I te wā o te koroni ka noho te nuinga o te iwi Māori ki ngā kāinga taiwhenua. Ahakoa kua pakari haere te āheinga ārai mate o te tinana Māori ki ētahi o ngā mate i mauria mai e te Pākehā, ngau tonu ai ngā mate huakita pērā i te taipoi pīwa me te mate kohi; me ngā mate huaketo pērā i te rewharewha, ki te Māori me te Pākehā hoki. I horapa ēnei mate i te kore kai i ngā kai hauora, i te nōhanga kerakera, me te noho kōpā.

Nō te whakaurunga o ngā paipa inu me ngā paipa paratūtae ki raro i te whenua o ngā tāone, ka heke haere ngā momo mate huakita. Nō te korekore o ēnei tūāhua ki ngā kāinga Māori ka pakaru mai ngā tahumaero ki ngā kāinga. Ko te whakapae a te kāwanatanga he huakore ngā kai, he kerakera te noho (ka rere te taipoi ki te tūkinotia ngā punawai), he kaha rawa hoki te Māori ki te whakatū kāinga ki ngā papa hāhaka, ki ngā whenua reporepo rānei.

Ngā kirikā

I te tau 1880 ka whakahoki kōrero te āpiha o te Tai Tokerau, e 20 ngā tamariki i mate i te piwa i roto o te Rarawa i ngā marama o Mahuru me Whiringa-ā-nuku. I whakamārama anō ia ko te kōanga te kaupeka o te tau e tino ngau ai te mate piwa; nō muri tonu i te hōtoke, i te wā o te tūpuhi. ‘Nā te kore hauhau o ngā whare, te haukū, te kōtē, me te paruheti, ka hua ko te tahumaero.’1

Te uru mai o te kāwanatanga

Ka taka te wā, ā, ka uru mai te kāwanatanga. Nō te tau 1900 ka hangaia ngā kaunihera Māori hei whakaū i ngā ture mā ki ngā kāinga Māori. Ko 1901 te tau ka uru a Māui Pōmare hei āpiha hauora Māori tuatahi. Ko tētahi mana ōna he whakatau kō ēhea ngā whare kia turakina. E rua tau i muri mai ka tīmata te haere a ngā kaitirotiro ki te whakatewhatewha i te hauora mā o ngā whare huri noa. Mā ia kaitirotiro hoki e tuhi te rahi o ngā whare ka turakina, ka whakatūria hoki ki tōna takiwā.

I roto i te rima tau tae noa ki te tau 1909, e 1,256 ngā whare i turakina; e 2,103 ngā whare rākau hou i hangaia huri noa. Ko te katoa nā te Māori i utu. E kī ana tētahi kaitirotiro, ‘Ko te huarahi o nāianei ko te “whare pakeha”.2 Ka amine tonu tētahi kaiketu ki ngā whanaketanga, engari ka tohe rawa ia ‘noho tonu ai te nuinga o te Māori ki ngā wharepuni kore hauhau, auahi tupeka’. Ka whakatepe ia me rangahau te kaupapa tae noa ki tōna hōhonutanga.3

Ngā kaupapa whare hou

Ka tino hāua ko te iwi Māori e te mate rewharewha o te tau 1918 – e 4.5 te whakareatanga ake o ngā mate Māori i ērā o te Pākehā – nō konei ka hua ake ētahi kaupapa hou hei whakapai ake i te noho o ngā whare me te hauora o ngā kāinga. I roto i te kaupapa whanake whenua Māori o ngā tau 1920 te ture i whakaaetia ai te whakatūnga o ētahi whare hou. Nā te Ture Whare Māori i te tau 1935, ka tukuna te pūtea taurewa 750 pāuna ki ngā kaitono whai whenua, whai pūtea hoki. Nō te tau 1938 ka whakarerekētia te ture, ā, ka taka iho ai te 50,000 pāuna mō te rawakore e pīrangi ana ki te whakatū whare.

He mea toko ēnei kaupapa i runga i te mātāpono ko te tangata tonu tōna anō kaiawhi; arā, ko ngā āwhina he pūtea taurewa noa iho. Kāre he take o ēnei kaupapa, nā te iti o ngā ratonga ki ēnei kaupapa ka tahi; nā ngā uauatanga taitara whenua Māori (he maha ngā kaipupuri ki te taitara kotahi) ka rua; ka toru, kāore te Māori i āhei ki te utu i ngā pūtea taurewa, he rawakore nō rātou. Nā whai anō ko te nuinga o ngā whare he mea hanga i raro i ngā kaupapa whanake whenua Māori (e 1,244 tae noa ki te tau 1940), kāre i raro i te Kaupapa Whakatū Whare (e 368 noa iho tae noa ki te tau 1940).

Te rangahau whare

I te tau 1933 ka whakahaere a Tākuta Harold Turbot i tāna rangahau ki te rohe o Waiapu ki te Tai Rāwhiti. Ka kite ia e 60 ōrau o ngā whare he kōpā te noho; 50 ōrau kua kino te wai; 50 ōrau o ngā rua wharepaku kei te raru katoa; e 30 ōrau kāore he wharepaku; e 6 ōrau noa iho ngā whare i whai tāpu, oko horoi hoki.

Ngā hoahoa whare

Nō te Tari Mahi te nuinga o ngā hoahoa whare i hangaia. Hei whakaheke i ngā utu, e rua noa iho ngā rūma o ngā whare, ā, nā ngā kaimahi Māori (te hunga koremahi) kē i hanga. Nō ngā tau 1920 tēnei tauira whare, ā, i tino rerekē rawa te āhua i ngā whare kāwanatanga i hangaia mō ngā Pākehā. Nā te whāiti o ngā whare, kāore i pai mō te reanga whānau. Kīhai hoki te kāwanatanga i pīrangi kia mātotoru te noho a ngā whānau Māori ki te whare kotahi.

Ngā raru whare

Kīhai ngā kaupapa whare i whakatika i ngā raruraru. I te tau 1939 neke atu i te haurua o te Māori kīhai i whai whare tōtika; neke atu i te 4 miriona pāuna (e 373.3 miriona i ēnei rā) te tāpeke utu hei rongoā i te mate. I taua wā e noho rawakore tonu ana te Māori ki ngā tūāhua haumate, e 7 whakareatanga ake ngā mate kohi Māori i ō te Pākehā. Ko te whakahau a te māngai o te Tai Rāwhiti a Tiaki Ōmana; kei te Māori ngā ngāherehere, arā, ngā rākau hei hanga whare, engari kāore he huruhuru hei mira i ngā rākau; ā, ka tonoa anō te kāwanatanga kia whakataka anō he pūtea mō te kaupapa whare mō te iwi Māori.

Footnotes
    • Appendices to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1880, G-4, p. 2. Back
    • Raeburn Lange, May the people live: a history of Maori health development 19001920. Auckland: Auckland University Press, 1999, p. 152. Back
    • Wanganui Herald, 12 Jul 1909, p. 4. Back

Urbanisation

He hekenga Māori hou

Nā te tō o ngā ‘rama nui’ o te auahi nui ka tīmata te Māori ki te heke ki Tāmaki-makaurau me Te Whanganui-a-Tara i ngā tau mai i 1920.  Engari he maha ngā uauatanga o te kimi nōhanga i te tāone. Nā ngā whakaaro a ngāi Pākehā mō te Māori, arā, he hunga noho kōpā, kore tiaki i ō rātou whare, kīhai ngā kaipupuri whare i pīrangi ki ngā kainoho Māori. E ai ki a James Rukutoki i te hui taumata i te tau 1939, ‘ko ngā toenga whare a ngā Pākehā anake ka mahue ki ngā Māori.’1

Taro kau iho i te tineitanga o te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao ka tokomaha ake ngā heke ki ngā tāone. Ko te nuinga ka tau atu ki ngā takiwā manawa tāone pērā i Freemans Bay (Tāmaki-makaurau) me Newtown (Te Whanganui-a-Tara). Heoi, ka noho pipiri ngā Māori o ēnei hapori, ā, ka tauawhitia tētahi e ērā kua roa kē e noho ana i te tāone. He mea mīharo tonu ki ngā Māori o Freemans Bay, tērā te noho tata ki ngā whare whakangahau o te pūtahi tāone tae atu ki te Whare Hapori Māori. Koinei ngā wāhi makau a te iwi Māori i muri i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao.

Ngā taiwhanga whare

He tini te iwi noho tāone ka noho ki ngā whare koroua i wāhia hei taiwhanga noho. E ai ki te rangahau o te tau 1951 tērā ētahi whānau Māori e whā, neke atu rānei ngā tamariki e noho ana ki te taiwhanga noho kotahi, e rua noa iho rānei ngā rūma. He rite tonu te tunu i runga i te tōhi primus, ā, kotahi te rūma horoi mō ngā kainoho tokomaha. He itiiti noa ka whai ahi hiko. Arā tētahi i ō wai i runga i ngā arawhata poupou.

Nga hōtera Māori

Nō te ekenga o te mahi a te rangatahi Māori ki ngā tāone ka hangaia ngā hōtera Māori mō te hunga rangatahi i eke ki te pakeke mahi. He wāhi haumaru, he wāhi whakahoahoa, he wāhi ako hoki ki ngā āhuatanga o te noho tāone.

Ngā whare kāwanatanga

Kīhai te ture i aukati i te whai wāhi o te Māori ki ngā whare reti kāwanatanga, engari ana ko ngā pōhēhē kē a ngā āpiha mō te Māori; tērā he hunga pūkoro pakaru, whakaheke i te kounga o ngā wāhi whare kāwanatanga. Nō te tau 1944 he kaupapa kē, arā mā te Wāhanga Whakatū Whare a te kāwanatanga ngā whare e whakatū i raro i te whakahaere a te Tari Māori me te Kaporeihana o ngā whanaketanga a te Kāwanatanga.

Hei akiaki i te noho tahi me te Pākehā, ka waimehatia ngā whānau Māori ki ngā tiriti a ngā whānau Pākehā. (Ko Waiwhetū ki Awakairangi tētahi o ngā takiwā ruarua kāore i pērā te whakawaimeha i te Māori. Ka whakatūria ngā whare kāwanatanga huri noa i te marae, ka noho pipiri tonu ngā whānau Māori.) Engari ana mai i te tau 1948 ki te tau 1954 e 97 noa iho ngā whare i whakatūhia ki ngā wāhi Māori e te Wāhanga Whakatū Whare.

I te pito o te tekau tau 1950 ka whakakorea tērā o ngā ture, ā, ka hūtia ngā whānau Māori i Freemans Bay ki Ōtara noho ai. Mai i te tekau tau 1960 ka puea ake ngā hapori Māori ki ngā takiwā whare kāwanatanga o Porirua (Te Whanganui-a-Tara) me Aranui (Ōtautahi).

Pūtea taurewa whare

Ka āhei anō te Māori ki ngā pūtea taurewa (me te huamoni iti) a te Tari Māori mō te hanga whare. Me whai poraka whenua kē te kaitono, me hora mai tāna moni tāpui, kia kaha hoki ki te utu i te mōkete 25 tau. Tērā ētahi Māori i āhei ki tēnei kaupapa, ā, ka waihangatia ō rātou kāinga.

Ngā hoahoa

Tē arohia te tikanga Māori i te whakatūnga o ngā whare hou mō ngā Māori nā te aro kē a te kāwanatanga ki te whakawaimeha i te Māori ki roto i te ao Pākehā. Nō konei he mea whakaware te wehe i te tapu me te noa, pērā i te whakatū mīhini kaka ki te taha o te oko kīhini. He aha te aha. Ka urutau te Māori i āna tikanga ki roto i ōna whare. Hei tauira, nō mua i te hanganga o ngā marae tāone, ko te heri tūpāpaku ki ngā kāinga takoto ai.

Te noho marae

Nā runga i te huatau o te manaakitanga ka whakatuwhera te Māori i tōna kāinga ki te tangata, ahakoa te kōpā o tōna noho. I ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau 1990 ka mea te wahine ki te kairangahau ‘tērā tō mātou whare rūma kotahi, 16 mātou tōpū ka noho i reira … ka whakapaia te karāti hei rūma moe, ā, nā taku tungāne te hēte taputapu i panoni hei rūma moe anō…aii te weriweri hoki o taua kerewēne.’2

Ka mau tonu te ruarua o ngā whare tōtika

E ai ki te rangahau i te tekau tau 1980 ko te wawata o te nuinga o ngāi Māori ko tētahi whare, engari i te tau 1986, kei raro te tatauranga kaipupuri whare Māori i tērā o tauiwi – arā, e 49 ōrau o te hunga Māori; e 73 ōrau o tauiwi i whai whare. Ko ētahi take i pērā ai ko te iti o te utu mahi, ko te tokomaha ake e noho koremahi ana, me te kaitā o ngā whānau.

He nui tonu te iwi Māori ka noho kōpāpā. Ko ngā take he pai ake ki te noho ā-whānau, he tītari haere i ngā utu, he kaikiri tonu nō ngā kaipupuri whare ki ngā kainoho Māori. Ko te whakapae a ngā kairangahau i hapa ngā kaupapa whare a te Pākehā, kāti mā te Māori anō e urupare tēnei raru.

Footnotes
    • Auckland Star, 27 May 1939, p. 8. Back
    • Maori Women’s Housing Research Project. For the sake of decent shelter. Wellington: Housing Corporation of New Zealand, 1991, p. 21. Back

New housing schemes

Kia tino whai wāhi te Māori ki ngā mahi

Nā te paheke o te tokomaha o ngā Māori whai whare ka tono tonu te Māori ko wai atu i a ia ki te whai hua mō tēnei raruraru. Kāti, i te tau 1988 ka whakawhiti te kāwanatanga i ētahi mana whakahaere rauemi whare ki ngā rūnanga ā-iwi. Nō konei tiputipu haere ai ngā kaupapa papakāinga i runga i ngā pūtea taurewa (me te moni tāpui iti) a te kāwanatanga me ngā whenua kaipupuri maha a te Māori. Ko te nuinga o ngā whare i karapoti i ngā marae – heoi kāore i pai ngā kaituku pūtea taurewa ki te hunga kaipupuri whenua maha.

Ara anō ētahi atu kaupapa:

  • Ko te Kaupapa Whare Taiwhenua i whakatūria i te tau 2001 mō te tapitapi me te whakatū whare. I waenganui i ngā tau o 2001/02 me 2010/11 tata tonu ki te $140 miriona ka whakapaua ki tēnei kaupapa. E 2,900 ngā whare i whakahoutia.
  • I waenga i ngā tau 2002 me 2008 ka whakarato Ngā Pūtea Taurewa mō Ngā Whare Taiwhenua i te $6.6 miriona ki ngā kaitiakitanga Māori mō te whakatū whare rēti. Kātahi ka rīhitia ngā whare ki a Whare Aotearoa mō te 10 tau.
  • I te tau 2000 ka tīmata Ngā Takiwā Whare Motuhenga, ā, tae noa ki te tau 2013. Ko tōna hua ko te mahi tahi a ngā rōpū whare a te kāwanatanga, ngā rōpū kaitiakitanga me ngā hapori Māori ki te whakatū whare hou. Ko tēnei tētahi o ngā kaupapa angitu hei tāwharau i te iwi Māori.

Ka whiwhi tonu ētahi Māori noho tāone i ngā āwhina a ngā manatū me ngā kaitiakitanga Māori o ngā tāone. Engari ana ko te nuinga ka piri tonu ki ngā kaiwhakarato whānui pērā i a Whare Aotearoa (i te tau 2006 e 12 ōrau o te taupori ka noho ki ēnei momo whare), ka hoko whare rānei mai i te mākete.

Te whare i te whānau

I te tau 2011 ka whakawhiwhia te kaitiakitanga o Pukaki Trust ki te pūtea taurewa $770,000 mai i te Pūtea Whare a Housing NZ hei whakatū i ngā whare 10 ki runga i tō rātou papakāinga tūtata ki te taunga rererangi o Tāmaki-makaurau. Mā tēnei whakawhanaketanga ka āhei ngā whānau (ngā hunga utu mahi iti, utu mahi tauwaenga rānei) o Pukaki te mau tonu ki tō rātou mana whenua ki tō rātou kāinga, marae hoki.

Ngā raru

I ngā tau tōmua o te rautau 2000 ka noho tonu aua raru anō ki ngā whare Māori, arā, he mātao, he haukū rawa. Ko te take tonu he iti te utu o ēnei momo whare. Ka mutu i hiahia tonu ētahi kia tata tonu ki te whānau. Ko te noho kōpā tonu tētahi raru nui. I te tau 2006, e 23 ōrau o te taupori Māori i noho ki kāinga kōpā, e ono whakareatanga ake i ō te hunga Pākehā. Ka noho anō ko te hauora Māori te papa. I te tau 2009 ka kite te hunga rangahau he tino kino te mate rūmātiki i waenganui i ngā tamariki mai i te 5 ki te 14 te pakeke, arā, 10 whakareatanga ake te kino tēnā i ngā tamariki Pākehā. Ko tētahi o ngā take o tēnei ko te noho kōpā.

Ko ngā uauatanga nui ki te Māori mō te hoko whare ko te iti o te utu, te koremahi me te kakenga utu hoko whare (tae rawa ki Tāmaki-makaurau). I te tau 2006, e 29 ōrau o te hunga Māori 15 te pakeke neke atu rānei i whai whare, i whai wāhi rānei ki tētahi whare. Ko te tau toharite mō te taupori whānau, e 50 ōrau.

Whānau Ora

Mai i te tau 2010 ka ngana te kāwanatanga ki te whakapai i ngā hua whare a te Māori mā te kaupapa o Whānau Ora. Ko ngā whāinga kia whai pūtea motuhake te Māori, ā, kia ora tonu ia i tēnei ao hurihuri. E ai ki tēnei kaupapa ko te tāwharau i te iwi Māori tētahi mea nui: tae atu ki te hauora, te mātauranga me ngā take ture. Ko te tūmanako ka mahi tahi ngā rōpū whare a te kāwanatanga me ngā kaitiakitanga Māori ki te waihanga whare mō te hunga Māori i hiahia kia nanao ki te kaupapa o Whānau Ora – hei ētahi me whakaae te tangata ki te whakakore i te momi auahi, me te inu waipiro. He kaupapa tēnei i hua ake i te Pāti Māori hei rongoā mō ngā raru e pā ana ki te whare i te iwi Māori.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

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How to cite this page: Ben Schrader, 'Te noho whare', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-noho-whare/print (accessed 18 September 2019)

Story by Ben Schrader, published 5 Sep 2013