Kōrero: Pounamu

Whārangi 6. Whakairo pounamu i ēnei rā

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Ka kitea te pounamu i ngā wāhi keri koura. Ko ēnei kōhatu me ngā toka pounamu i te awa o Arahura ngā pounamu i tapahia, i auahatia, i orohia nuitia i ngā tau whakamutunga o te rau tau 1800 tae atu ki ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau atu i 1900. Me uaua te tohu ko hea ngā kōhatu pai i te mea, nā ngā mahi a te ua, te awa, te hau, kua rite te āhua o tēnā kōhatu, o tēnā kōhatu, o tēnā kohatu. Kotahi anake te huarahi e mōhio ai koe mehemea he toka pounamu he aha kē rānei, arā, mā te huti i te toka mai i te awa ka wāhi mā te kani kia tuwhera. Ka whakatahangia te nuinga o ngā kōhatu ka whakamātauria pēneitia.

I aro anō ngā Hainamana keri koura ki te orooro pounamu, nā te nui pea o te jade ki a rātou.

Ka tīmata te Pākehā ki te auaha pounamu i te tekau tau atu i 1860, i te whakatuwheratanga o ētahi whare whakanao ki Ōtepoti. Whāia, ka noho ko Ōtepoti te pokapū mō te auaha pounamu, tae rawa ki te pokapū o te rau tau atu i 1900. Ko te nuinga o ngā whakairo i māhia i tērā wā he tārua o te mere, te whakakai, te hei tiki. He maha ngā Māori i tono ki ēnei whare whakanao kia mahia he taonga pounamu mō rātou.

Tāwāhi

I te tīmatanga o te rau tau 1900, ka kaha te hiahia o ngā iwi ki tāwāhi ki te pounamu, tae rā anō ki Idar-Oberstein – he tāone kei Tiamana. Mō hia te rau tau, ka hau te rongo mō te tapahi kōhatu kahurangi ki Idar-Oberstein. Ko te nuinga o te pounamu ka tukua kia orohia i Tiamana, ka hoki mai ki Aotearoa he tiki. Ka paheke tēnei ahumahi i te kore haere o te keri kōura ki Te Tai Poutini, tāpae atu ki ngā pakanga e rua o te ao.

Atu i te tau 1947 ka rāhuitia te hoko pounamu ki tāwāhi kāore anō kia tapahia.

Ngā mahinga o te pounamu

I tēnei te ao hurihuri, ka whakamahia te kani taimana kē hei tapahi i te pounamu; he tino tere tēnei mahinga tērā i te waiho mā te tangata hei auaha, hei orooro. Ka tapahia ngā papa pounamu e te kani taimana kia whāiti rawa, kātahi ka tapatapahia anōtia e ngā kani paku iho kia puta ake te āhua o te taonga. Whāia, ka auahatia ēnei mā te huri waruwaru (abrasive wheel), mā te kani taimana rānei ka puritia ki te ringa. Hei muri ka orohia te pounamu kia pīataata.

Ngā tohu Kiwi

Mōhiotia tonutia ai te rangatahi o Aotearoa ka haere ki tāwāhi i ā rātou taonga pounamu. Kei tētahi wāhi hoko i Rānana tētahi tangata Māori e auaha ana i ēnei taonga mō ngā rangatahi mokemoke, hei tohu mō te kāinga.

Ka ara anō

I te mea kei roto kē te pounamu i te toka, me uaua ka tareka te whakawhanake i tētahi ahumahi pounamu, nā te taumaha o ngā toka me te iti o te pounamu kei roto. Mai i ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau atu i 1960 ko te waka topatopa hei hiki i ngā toka nunui kei ngā wāhi ururua pērā i te kōawa o Waitaiki. Nō konā ka nui atu ai te pounamu. Whāia, ko te whakatūnga o tētahi wheketere, ko Westland Greenstone i te tau 1963. Nō muri ka whakatūria ētahi atu wheketere. Ko Hokitika te ‘Pokapū Pounamu o Te Tai Poutini’.

He rite ki ngā rā ki mua; inarā, ko te nuinga o ngā taonga ka puta i nga wheketere nei, he tārua o ngā taonga Māori. Ka hia kē i auahatia; ko te nuinga mō te hoko. Nō ngā tau whakamutunga o te rau tau 1900 me ngā tau tōmua o te mano tau 2000, kua tīmata ētahi tāngata matatau ki te auaha taonga pounamu e whakanui ana i ngā tauira a te Māori me te āhua ake o te pounamu.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Basil Keane, 'Pounamu - Whakairo pounamu i ēnei rā', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/pounamu/page-6 (accessed 8 December 2019)

He kōrero nā Basil Keane, i tāngia i te 12 Jun 2006