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Pounamu – jade or greenstone

by  Basil Keane

He taonga tino nui rawa atu te pounamu ki te Māori – ka rawea, ka reia, ka arongia nuitia. He tohu te pounamu ki te mana me te wehi; he taonga whakarākei, he taonga whakapūmau hoki i te rangimārie.


Pounamu – several names

Ko ngā ingoa a te Pākehā mō te pounamu, ko te greenstone, ko te New Zealand jade. He taonga nui te pounamu hei taonga kahurangi, hei whao, hei rākau whawhai hoki. He ingoa tō tēnā iwi, tō tēnā iwi mō te pounamu, arā, ko te:

  • pounamu te ingoa tūturu a te Māori.
  • greenstone te kupu a te Pākehā i ngā rau tau o 1800 me 1900; heoi, kei te nui haere te huri ki te kupu pounamu.
  • New Zealand jade. He ingoa tēnei ka whakarite i te pounamu ki tētahi kōhatu āhua rite o tāwāhi kīia ai ko te jade.

Ngā momo pounamu

E whā ngā momo pounamu, ka wehea i runga i te tae me te whakatīaho: kawakawa, kahurangi, īnanga, tangiwai. He nephrite te kahurangi, te īnanga, te nephrite; he bowenite te tangiwai. Arā anō ngā ingoa o tēnā iwi, o tēnā iwi mō te pounamu, i runga i tōna tae me tōna whakatīaho.

Te nephrite me te bowenite

Kitea nuitia ai te nephrite. He manawa whenua konupūmā-konupora (calcium-magnesium) nō te tōpūtanga amphibole. Mā te nui o te rino ka kaha atu te kākarauri o te pounamu.

Ko Piopiotahi (Milford Sound) anake te wāhi o Aotearoa ka kitea te bowenite. He manawa-whenua rino-konupora (iron-magnesium). He rerekē, he whakatīaho, he kōpikopiko tōna āhua.

Jade

E rua ngā momo jade ka orohia ki tāwāhi, ko te nephrite me te jadeite. Kāore he jadeite ki Aotearoa, kāhore hoki he bowenite i roto i te jade.

Ngā wāhi o te pounamu

Ko Te Wai Pounamu anake te wāhi kitea ai te pounamu. Nō konei tapaina tuatahitia ai taua moutere ko Te Wāhi Pounamu; ka haere te wā, ā, ka huri te ingoa ki Te Wai Pounamu.

Ko ngā wāhi mahi pounamu a te Māori onamata i Te Wai Pounamu, ko ngā awa o Taramakau me Arahura i Te Tai Poutini, te tonga o Te Tai Poutini, tatū ki ngā tahatika o te roto o Wakatipu i Ōtākou. Ko Piopiotahi (Milford Sounds) anake te wāhi mō te tangiwai.

I ngā rā ki mua ko te awa o Arahura te tino wāhi mō Poutini Ngāi Tahu (Ngāi Tahu ki Te Tai Poutini) ki te mahi pounamu, kei te komititanga o te awa o Arahura me te kōawa o Waitaiki (Olderog).

Te wāhi nui o te pounamu

Ko Te Wai Pounamu anake te wāhi ki Aotearoa ka kitea te pounamu; whai anō he hononga tata tō Ngāi Tahu ki te pounamu. Ka manakotia nuitia te pounamu mō tōna kaha, tōna mārō, tōna ātaahua. Heoi, ahakoa tōna rerehua me tana pai hei taonga whai kiko, kei runga rawa ake tōna nui. Nā te mea he taonga te pounamu nā te rangatira, he taonga hoki hei whakamārire i te riri, he mana nui, he tapu nui te pounamu. He taonga nui rawa atu te pounamu ki ngā iwi katoa o Aotearoa. Ka nui ngā tauhokohoko mō te pounamu puta noa i Te Ika-a-Māui.

Footnotes
  1. Quoted in Elsdon Best, Stone implements of the Maori . Wellington: Government Printer, 1974, p. 175. › Back

The origins of pounamu

Te orooro i te pounamu

He kōrero tā tēnā iwi, tā tēnā iwi mō te takenga mai o te pounamu. Nā Tā Tipene O’Regan o Ngāi Tahu tēnei kōrero.

Ko Poutini te kaitiaki o te pounamu. I wehi a ia ki tērā taniwha a Whaitipū, te kaitiaki o te hōanga (sandstone). I ngā wā ō mua ko te hōanga hei tapahi i te pounamu.

Ka whāia e Whaitipū a Poutini, ka rere tērā ki Tūhua - he motu kei Te Moana-a-Toi, ki reira whakamaru ai. Ka kite a Poutini i tētahi wahine purotu ki reira, ko Waitaiki, e heke iho ana ki te kaukau i te wai. Mīharo katoa a Poutini ki tōna ātaahua. Nā te kaha rawa o tōna hiahia ki te wahine rā, ka kapohia e Poutini, ka kāhakina ki tuawhenua.

Kia mōhio a Tamaāhua - te tāne a Waitaiki - kua ngaro tana wahine, ka karakia i tana karakia huri kaupapa ki te wānanga kei hea tana wahine. Kātahi ka whiua e Tamaāhua tana teka torotoro; nāwai, ka tohu te teka rā ki te takiwā kei reira a Poutini.

Kātahi ka arumia e Tamaāhua a Poutini, ā, ki Te Wai Pounamu rā anō. I te awa o Arahura ka kitea. Ka kite atu a Poutini ka mōhio, kua mau ia. Nā te nui o tana wehi ki a Whaitipū, ka hurihia e Poutini a Waitaiki hei pounamu, kia rite ki a ia ake te āhua. Kātahi ka whakatakotohia e Poutini te wahine rā ki te awa o Arahura, i te hononga mai o tētahi kōawa; nō muri ka mōhiotia ai taua kōawa, ko Waitaiki. Tatū ki ēnei rā, he wāhi nui a Arahura me Waitaiki mō te pounamu. Kāhore a Tamaāhua i kite i a Poutini, ka rere tērā kia puta ki tai.

Tatū ki ēnei rā, ko Poutini te kaitiaki o te whenua me te pounamu. Koirā te take tapaina ai taua rohe ko Te Tai Poutini.

Te tātai i te whenua

Hei tā ngā kaitātai aro whenua, ka hangaa te nephrite me te bowenite i te kōpū o te whenua, e 10 kiromita ki raro. Nā te kaha wera rawa atu, ka rerekē ngā āhuatanga matū i ngā wāhi ka tuki te kōhatu parangahu (volcanic) ki te kōhatu parataiao (sedimentary); koianei te hangatanga o te pounamu. Heoi, whāiti noa iho, ririki noa iho ēnei putunga pounamu. Ko te kairangi te pounamu nui rawa atu o ngā pounamu. Ina kitea tēnei momo pounamu, i te nuinga o te wā kei te whiria e tētahi momo papanga kīia ai, he serpentine.

I ara ake ngā maunga o Te Wai Pounamu i roto i ngā e rua miriona tau ki mua. Nā te aha, ka hikina ake ki runga aua papanga e pupuri ana i te pounamu. Ka haere te wā, ā, ka rere ngā awa me ngā awa kōpaka (glacier), ka tau ngā pounamu ki ērā wāhi. Kei te pēnei tonu te kawe a te horo whenua me te wai i te pounamu, tae rawa ki te moana. Kua tangohia noatia e ngā tāngata tōmua te pounamu kei ngā wāhi mārakerake.

Footnotes
  1. He kōrero pūrākau mo ngā taunahanahatanga a ngā tūpuna: place names of the ancestors . Wellington: New Zealand Geographic Board, 1990, pp. 83–84. › Back

Ngāi Tahu and pounamu

Te mōkī a Raureka

Ko Ngāti Wairangi te iwi tuatahi kia noho ki Te Tai Poutini. Mō tētahi wā roa ka tū ngā maunga hei whakamarumaru i a rātou, e tau ai tā rātou noho hei kaitiaki o te pounamu.

Heoi, ka kitea e tētahi wahine ko Raureka tōna ingoa, tētahi ara ki te tai rāwhiti. I tōna haerenga ka tūpono ki ētahi o Ngāi Tahu, e tārai waka ana. Ka kōrero atu a Raureka mō te pūhuki o ā rātou whao; kātahi ka nanao te wahine rā ki tana toki pounamu koi rawa. Ka mīharo aua tāngata o Ngāi Tahu. I tōna hokinga ki Te Tai Poutini, ka whai atu ētahi o Ngāi Tahu ki te tiki pounamu mā rātau, me te ako i te ara e taea anōtia ai te tiki pounamu.

Poutini Ngāi Tahu

Nāwai ā, ka tutū te puehu i waenganui i a Ngāi Tahu me Ngāti Wairangi mō te pounamu. I te mutunga o ngā rīriri ka toa ko Ngāi Tahu, ka riro ki a ia te mana ki ngā pounamu. Ka mōhiotia taua iwi ko Poutini Ngāi Tahu; ka kohia ngā mōrehu o Ngāti Wairangi ki raro i a rātou. Atu i tēnei wā ka noho a Poutini Ngāi Tahu ki te tuku pounamu ki ō rātou huānga kei te rāwhiti, ka tū a Kaiapoi hei pokapū tauhokohoko i te pounamu.

I ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau atu i 1830 ka whakaekea a Poutini Ngāi Tahu e ngā iwi o Te Ika-a-Maui. Nō te eanga o te puehu i te mau tonu i a Poutini Ngāi Tahu te mana ki te pounamu.

Ka ngaro te pounamu

Taka ki te tekau tau atu i 1860 ka uru mai ngā hoko whenua me ngā kaupapa here a te Karauna hei whakapōrearea i a Poutini Ngāi Tahu. Ka pau te e kotahi rau tau e whawhai ana te iwi kia whakahokia te mana mō te pounamu ki a rātou.

I te tau 1869 ka tīmata ngā whiriwhiri a Poutini Ngāi Tahu ki a Tiemi Make (James MacKay), te āpiha a te kāwanatanga i tonoa kia hoko i ngā poraka whenua o Arahura me Kaikoura.

Ko te kōrero nui i whakatakotohia atu e te iwi, mō te pupuri i te pounamu. Ka whakaae a Tiemi Make kia pupuri tonu a Poutini Ngāi Tahu ki te mana o te pounamu, tae rawa ki te takere o te awa o Arahura. Ahakoa te hiahia o te iwi kia wehea mai ngā whenua kei ngā tahataha o te awa tae rawa ake ki te maunga o Tūhua, e 2,000 eka anake i tukuna e Tiemi Make. Heoi ko tāna, ka taea e Poutini Ngāi Tahu te hoko mai i te whenua mō te e 10 hereni mō te eka kotahi, hāunga te mea i hokona tuatahitia e Tiemi Make mō te kotahi kapa mō te e 100 eka. I tua atu hei tā Tiemi Make, kāore he take o te pounamu ki te kāwanatanga.

I informed them that the Greenstone was of no use to the Government, and if it was all they wanted, they might have the whole of the Arahura bed, that it was of no use to anyone and even if they sold it to the Government, no objection would be raised as to their procuring Greenstone from it.

Ahakoa ngā kupu taurangi, kīhai i rāhuitia te papa o te awa o Arahura, kīhai hoki i arongia te wāhi nui o Ngāi Tahu ki ngā pounamu i te awa o Arahura me te rohe o Ngāi Tahu puta noa. 1

I te tau 1976 ka tukuna e te Karauna te mana o te awa o Arahura ki te Kaporeihana o Māwhera, he rōpū i whakatūria hei kanohi mō ngā kaipupuri tūturu. Ahakoa tērā, kāore tonu i te mōhiotia i taua wā mēnā ka hoki mai ki te iwi ngā tika mō te pounamu. I taua wā, kei te Karauna kē te mana ki te keri me te tango pounamu i raro i te Mining Act 1971 me ētahi atu ture.

Te mea tūturu

He rahi ngā taonga ehara i te pounamu kei te hokona anō he taonga pounamu Māori. Ka mahia ēnei taonga i te jade iti nō tāwāhi. Kei a Ngāi Tahu te mana whakahaere i te pounamu; kei te whakahiato rātou i tētahi waitohu kia mōhio ai ngā wae tāpoi ko hea ngā taonga tūturu o Aotearoa. I tua atu, kua rēhitatia te waitohu toi iho™ hei tohu ko hea ngā taonga me ngā toi tūturu a te Māori.

Ka hoki anō te mana o te pounamu ki a Ngāi Tahu

Hei tā te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi ‘nā te kamehameha o te pounamu me tōna wairua ki te ao Māori, me pau te kaha kia hoki anō te mana mō te pounamu ki raro i a Ngāi Tahu’. Ka whakaae te Karauna. I te tau 1997 ka mana te Ngāi Tahu (Pounamu Vesting) Act, ka taka te mana o te pounamu kei te taiao o Te Wai Pounamu ki raro i te mana o te iwi.

Whāia, ka tukuna e Ngāi Tahu te mana pupuri o te pounamu kei te rohe o Arahura ki te Kaporeihana o Māwhera, hei tohu ki te whanaungatanga i waenganui i a Poutini Ngāi Tahu me te pounamu. Nō te tau 2002 whakaaetia ai te Mahere Tiaki Pounamu a Ngāi Tahu.

Footnotes
  1. Waitangi Tribunal, The Ngai Tahu report 1991 (Wai 27). Wellington: Brooker and Friend, 1991. › Back

Implements and adornment

Ngā taputapu

Mai anō ka hanga taputapu te Māori i te pounamu. I auahatia te toki hei tārai waka, hei tope rākau, hei hanga whare. E ai ki te kōrero, whai muri i tā rāua tūhura i a Aotearoa, ka hoki a Kupe rāua ko Ngahue ki Hawaiki me ētahi toka pounamu. Koianei ia ngā toka i orohia mai ai ngā toki auaha i te maha o ngā waka kawe i ngā tūpuna ki Aotearoa.

He maha ngā tūmomo whao whakairo. Ko ngā ripi me ngā kota ngā taputapu pounamu tahito rawa a te Māori. Arā anō ngā taputapu me ngā taonga ka mahia i te pounamu – hei matau, pākuru, hōrete, tara o te tao huata, aha atu.

Ngā taonga whakarākai

Arā te maha o ngā taonga whakarākai ka hangaa i te pounamu; ngā momo whakakai pērā i te kuru (he roa, he tōtika), te kapeu (ngā mea roa he piko a raro), tae atu ki te koropepe (he kōpiko te hanga pērā i te tuna). Arā anō ngā hei pounamu pērā i te pekapeka me te matau. He pounamu ētahi o ngā pōria kākā, ā, he wā ka whakamaua hei taonga ki te kakī o te tangata.

Hei tiki

Ko te hei tiki te taonga pounamu rongonui rawa a te Māori. Tērā tētahi kōrero e kī ana, ko Tiki te tangata tuatahi ki te ao, ko te heitiki tōna ritenga. Hāunga tērā, kua puta ngā whakahē a ētahi mō tēnei kōrero, i te mea he wahine, he aha kē rānei te heitiki; ehara i te tāne.

He rite te āhua o te tiki ki tētahi tangata anuanu kei te raka ōna waewae, kei te tītaha tōna māhunga. I te nuinga o te wā, ko te wahine anake ka mau. Tērā te kōrero mō te wāhine pukupā, ki te whakamau i te heitiki kāore e kore, ka hapū.


Symbols of chieftainship

Mere pounamu

Ko te mere pounamu (patu pounamu rānei) te rākau pounamu nui rawa atu ki te Māori. He tohu ia mō te rangatira; me kī, ko te mere pounamu ki te Māori, ko te kōhatu kahurangi pērā i te taimana ki tauiwi.

Ko te mahi a te mere pounamu he wero, he haehae. Kāore te mere i whakamahia pērā i te toki, kei kotahi atu ki tētahi atu mere ka pakaru, ka moumou ngā werawera i whakapaua i roto i ngā tau i tōna auahatanga.

Toki poutangata

Ko te toki poutangata mō te taki i te riri. Heoi, iti noa ngā wā ka whakangaua ki te kiko tangata te kiko rākau rānei. Pērā i te mere pounamu, nā tōna mana nui, ko te rangatira anake ka āhei te mau i te toki poutangata. Kei ngā whānau rangatira e pupuri ana ngā toki poutangata. Kia tae ki ngā hui nui a te iwi pērā i ngā tangihanga o ngā rangatira kua whakaaturia mai te toki poutangata.

Taonga a te iwi

Kei tēnā iwi, kei tēnā iwi ā rātou kōrero mō ā rātou taonga pounamu. Ka tapaa he ingoa ki te toki, te mere, te toki poutangata rānei. He tapu ēnei taonga, he nui ō rātou mana. He whakahokinga mahara te taonga pounamu ki ngā tūpuna me ā rātou pakanga. He maha ngā waiata a ngā tūpuna mō ā rātou taonga pounamu.

Kaitiaki

Hei ētahi wā ka tū te pounamu hei māwe pupuri i te mauri o tētahi mea, o tētahi tangata, aha atu rānei. I te tau 1986 ka tukuna e Ngāi Tahu tētahi papa pounamu ki Te Papa Tongarewa, ko Mauri; koia te mauri o Rongomaraeroa, te marae o Te Papa Tongarewa. I te hokinga mai o Te Maori ki Aotearoa, tērā tētahi kōhatu pounamu ko Te Māori anō te ingoa, ka whai haere i te whakaaturanga hei pupuri i te mauri. Nō muri ka whakahokia te pounamu nei ki a Ngāi Tahu, ā, i tēnei wā kei te whare taonga o Murihiku a ia.

Te Āwhiorangi

He nui ngā kōrero a ngā iwi mō te toki rā a Te Āwhiorangi, anei tā Ngā Rauru:

Ko Te Āwhiorangi te toki a Tāne nāna i tapahi ngā uaua hono i a Ranginui rāua ko Papatūānuku. Whāia, ka tū ko Te Āwhiorangi hei tohu mō te mana o ngā toki katoa.

Ka heke te toki i ngā kāwai ariki, mai i a Tāne taka iho ki a Turi te rangatira o runga i te waka Aotea. Nā Āwhiorangi taua waka i auaha. Nā te nui o te tapu me te māharahara kei raweketia a Te Āwhiorangi, ka whakamoea e Rangitaupea ki runga ake o tētahi whara (ana kōiwi). Ka moe taua toki mō hia whakatupuranga, tae rawa ki te paunga o te rau tau 1800. Tērā tētahi wahine ko Tōmairangi tōna ingoa, i moe i tana tāne nō Ngā Rauru. Nā tōna kūare ka tūpono taua wahine ki te takotoranga o Āwhiorangi. I tana kitenga i te toki rā, ka hikohiko te uira, ka papā te whatitiri, ka rere te huka. Ka kī a ia, ‘Kotahi te mea i kite au i reira, anō he atua; ka nui taku mataku’.

Ka awatea, ka huihui a Ngā Rauru me ētahi atu iwi, ka tuku karakia ētahi tohunga tokorua ki runga i a Āwhiorangi. Kātahi ka hikohiko te uira, ka papā te whatitiri, ka tau te kohu ki te whenua.

I te tōmuritanga o te rau tau e 1900 e kī ana te kōrero kei a Ruka Broughton te toki nei e pupuri ana. He tohunga, he kaiwhakaako, he minita Mihingare a Ruka nō te iwi o Ngā Rauru.


Modern stone work

Ka kitea te pounamu i ngā wāhi keri koura. Ko ēnei kōhatu me ngā toka pounamu i te awa o Arahura ngā pounamu i tapahia, i auahatia, i orohia nuitia i ngā tau whakamutunga o te rau tau 1800 tae atu ki ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau atu i 1900. Me uaua te tohu ko hea ngā kōhatu pai i te mea, nā ngā mahi a te ua, te awa, te hau, kua rite te āhua o tēnā kōhatu, o tēnā kōhatu, o tēnā kohatu. Kotahi anake te huarahi e mōhio ai koe mehemea he toka pounamu he aha kē rānei, arā, mā te huti i te toka mai i te awa ka wāhi mā te kani kia tuwhera. Ka whakatahangia te nuinga o ngā kōhatu ka whakamātauria pēneitia.

I aro anō ngā Hainamana keri koura ki te orooro pounamu, nā te nui pea o te jade ki a rātou.

Ka tīmata te Pākehā ki te auaha pounamu i te tekau tau atu i 1860, i te whakatuwheratanga o ētahi whare whakanao ki Ōtepoti. Whāia, ka noho ko Ōtepoti te pokapū mō te auaha pounamu, tae rawa ki te pokapū o te rau tau atu i 1900. Ko te nuinga o ngā whakairo i māhia i tērā wā he tārua o te mere, te whakakai, te hei tiki. He maha ngā Māori i tono ki ēnei whare whakanao kia mahia he taonga pounamu mō rātou.

Tāwāhi

I te tīmatanga o te rau tau 1900, ka kaha te hiahia o ngā iwi ki tāwāhi ki te pounamu, tae rā anō ki Idar-Oberstein – he tāone kei Tiamana. Mō hia te rau tau, ka hau te rongo mō te tapahi kōhatu kahurangi ki Idar-Oberstein. Ko te nuinga o te pounamu ka tukua kia orohia i Tiamana, ka hoki mai ki Aotearoa he tiki. Ka paheke tēnei ahumahi i te kore haere o te keri kōura ki Te Tai Poutini, tāpae atu ki ngā pakanga e rua o te ao.

Atu i te tau 1947 ka rāhuitia te hoko pounamu ki tāwāhi kāore anō kia tapahia.

Ngā mahinga o te pounamu

I tēnei te ao hurihuri, ka whakamahia te kani taimana kē hei tapahi i te pounamu; he tino tere tēnei mahinga tērā i te waiho mā te tangata hei auaha, hei orooro. Ka tapahia ngā papa pounamu e te kani taimana kia whāiti rawa, kātahi ka tapatapahia anōtia e ngā kani paku iho kia puta ake te āhua o te taonga. Whāia, ka auahatia ēnei mā te huri waruwaru (abrasive wheel), mā te kani taimana rānei ka puritia ki te ringa. Hei muri ka orohia te pounamu kia pīataata.

Ngā tohu Kiwi

Mōhiotia tonutia ai te rangatahi o Aotearoa ka haere ki tāwāhi i ā rātou taonga pounamu. Kei tētahi wāhi hoko i Rānana tētahi tangata Māori e auaha ana i ēnei taonga mō ngā rangatahi mokemoke, hei tohu mō te kāinga.

Ka ara anō

I te mea kei roto kē te pounamu i te toka, me uaua ka tareka te whakawhanake i tētahi ahumahi pounamu, nā te taumaha o ngā toka me te iti o te pounamu kei roto. Mai i ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau atu i 1960 ko te waka topatopa hei hiki i ngā toka nunui kei ngā wāhi ururua pērā i te kōawa o Waitaiki. Nō konā ka nui atu ai te pounamu. Whāia, ko te whakatūnga o tētahi wheketere, ko Westland Greenstone i te tau 1963. Nō muri ka whakatūria ētahi atu wheketere. Ko Hokitika te ‘Pokapū Pounamu o Te Tai Poutini’.

He rite ki ngā rā ki mua; inarā, ko te nuinga o ngā taonga ka puta i nga wheketere nei, he tārua o ngā taonga Māori. Ka hia kē i auahatia; ko te nuinga mō te hoko. Nō ngā tau whakamutunga o te rau tau 1900 me ngā tau tōmua o te mano tau 2000, kua tīmata ētahi tāngata matatau ki te auaha taonga pounamu e whakanui ana i ngā tauira a te Māori me te āhua ake o te pounamu.


Pounamu and peace-making

Te pounamu hei whakamoe riri

Ka tukua te taonga pounamu hei tohu mō te rongomau i waenganui i ētahi e rīriri ana. Tērā a Hine-nui-o-te-paua, he mere pounamu nā Ngāpuhi i tuku ki a Ngāti Pāoa i ngā reanga maha ki muri. Whāia, ka tāpaea ia ki a Te Hōri Kerei hei pupuri i te rongomau me te Pākehā. He pērā rawa te mana o te mere pounamu, ka taea e ia te hohou rongo.

Te tatau pounamu

Tērā te tatau pounamu, he kōrero whakarite mō te whakapūmautanga o te rongomau ki waenganui i ētahi iwi e rīriri ana. Otirā, he kupu whakarite noa te tatau pounamu - kāore he pounamu, kāore he tatau; ka tohungia ētahi wāhi pērā i ētahi hiwi hei tohu mō te tatau pounamu.

He wā anō ka whakatūria he taumau hei whakapūmau i te rongomau. He pērā te tatau pounamu i waenganui i a Ngāti Kahungunu me Ngāi Tūhoe.

Ka tono ētahi rangatira o Ngāti Kahungunu kia hui ki ngā rangatira o Ngāi Tūhoe ko te hohou rongo te take. Ka tohungia ko Te Āhuru o Ngāi Tūhoe me Te Hipara o Ngāti Kahungunu hei takawaenga. Ka haere ngā whiriwhiringa. Hei tohu whakapūmau i te rongo, ka taumaua e Hipara tana tamāhine ki tētahi o Ngāi Tūhoe. Kātahi ka taumaua ētahi hiwi – a Kūhā-tārewa me Turi-o-Kahu hei tohu ki te tatau pounamu.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

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How to cite this page: Basil Keane, 'Pounamu', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/pounamu/print (accessed 13 December 2019)

He kōrero nā Basil Keane, i tāngia i te 12 Jun 2006