Kōrero: Pounamu

Whārangi 3. Ngāi Tahu me te pounamu

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Te mōkī a Raureka

Ko Ngāti Wairangi te iwi tuatahi kia noho ki Te Tai Poutini. Mō tētahi wā roa ka tū ngā maunga hei whakamarumaru i a rātou, e tau ai tā rātou noho hei kaitiaki o te pounamu.

Heoi, ka kitea e tētahi wahine ko Raureka tōna ingoa, tētahi ara ki te tai rāwhiti. I tōna haerenga ka tūpono ki ētahi o Ngāi Tahu, e tārai waka ana. Ka kōrero atu a Raureka mō te pūhuki o ā rātou whao; kātahi ka nanao te wahine rā ki tana toki pounamu koi rawa. Ka mīharo aua tāngata o Ngāi Tahu. I tōna hokinga ki Te Tai Poutini, ka whai atu ētahi o Ngāi Tahu ki te tiki pounamu mā rātau, me te ako i te ara e taea anōtia ai te tiki pounamu.

Poutini Ngāi Tahu

Nāwai ā, ka tutū te puehu i waenganui i a Ngāi Tahu me Ngāti Wairangi mō te pounamu. I te mutunga o ngā rīriri ka toa ko Ngāi Tahu, ka riro ki a ia te mana ki ngā pounamu. Ka mōhiotia taua iwi ko Poutini Ngāi Tahu; ka kohia ngā mōrehu o Ngāti Wairangi ki raro i a rātou. Atu i tēnei wā ka noho a Poutini Ngāi Tahu ki te tuku pounamu ki ō rātou huānga kei te rāwhiti, ka tū a Kaiapoi hei pokapū tauhokohoko i te pounamu.

I ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau atu i 1830 ka whakaekea a Poutini Ngāi Tahu e ngā iwi o Te Ika-a-Maui. Nō te eanga o te puehu i te mau tonu i a Poutini Ngāi Tahu te mana ki te pounamu.

Ka ngaro te pounamu

Taka ki te tekau tau atu i 1860 ka uru mai ngā hoko whenua me ngā kaupapa here a te Karauna hei whakapōrearea i a Poutini Ngāi Tahu. Ka pau te e kotahi rau tau e whawhai ana te iwi kia whakahokia te mana mō te pounamu ki a rātou.

I te tau 1869 ka tīmata ngā whiriwhiri a Poutini Ngāi Tahu ki a Tiemi Make (James MacKay), te āpiha a te kāwanatanga i tonoa kia hoko i ngā poraka whenua o Arahura me Kaikoura.

Ko te kōrero nui i whakatakotohia atu e te iwi, mō te pupuri i te pounamu. Ka whakaae a Tiemi Make kia pupuri tonu a Poutini Ngāi Tahu ki te mana o te pounamu, tae rawa ki te takere o te awa o Arahura. Ahakoa te hiahia o te iwi kia wehea mai ngā whenua kei ngā tahataha o te awa tae rawa ake ki te maunga o Tūhua, e 2,000 eka anake i tukuna e Tiemi Make. Heoi ko tāna, ka taea e Poutini Ngāi Tahu te hoko mai i te whenua mō te e 10 hereni mō te eka kotahi, hāunga te mea i hokona tuatahitia e Tiemi Make mō te kotahi kapa mō te e 100 eka. I tua atu hei tā Tiemi Make, kāore he take o te pounamu ki te kāwanatanga.

I informed them that the Greenstone was of no use to the Government, and if it was all they wanted, they might have the whole of the Arahura bed, that it was of no use to anyone and even if they sold it to the Government, no objection would be raised as to their procuring Greenstone from it.

Ahakoa ngā kupu taurangi, kīhai i rāhuitia te papa o te awa o Arahura, kīhai hoki i arongia te wāhi nui o Ngāi Tahu ki ngā pounamu i te awa o Arahura me te rohe o Ngāi Tahu puta noa. 1

I te tau 1976 ka tukuna e te Karauna te mana o te awa o Arahura ki te Kaporeihana o Māwhera, he rōpū i whakatūria hei kanohi mō ngā kaipupuri tūturu. Ahakoa tērā, kāore tonu i te mōhiotia i taua wā mēnā ka hoki mai ki te iwi ngā tika mō te pounamu. I taua wā, kei te Karauna kē te mana ki te keri me te tango pounamu i raro i te Mining Act 1971 me ētahi atu ture.

Te mea tūturu

He rahi ngā taonga ehara i te pounamu kei te hokona anō he taonga pounamu Māori. Ka mahia ēnei taonga i te jade iti nō tāwāhi. Kei a Ngāi Tahu te mana whakahaere i te pounamu; kei te whakahiato rātou i tētahi waitohu kia mōhio ai ngā wae tāpoi ko hea ngā taonga tūturu o Aotearoa. I tua atu, kua rēhitatia te waitohu toi iho™ hei tohu ko hea ngā taonga me ngā toi tūturu a te Māori.

Ka hoki anō te mana o te pounamu ki a Ngāi Tahu

Hei tā te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi ‘nā te kamehameha o te pounamu me tōna wairua ki te ao Māori, me pau te kaha kia hoki anō te mana mō te pounamu ki raro i a Ngāi Tahu’. Ka whakaae te Karauna. I te tau 1997 ka mana te Ngāi Tahu (Pounamu Vesting) Act, ka taka te mana o te pounamu kei te taiao o Te Wai Pounamu ki raro i te mana o te iwi.

Whāia, ka tukuna e Ngāi Tahu te mana pupuri o te pounamu kei te rohe o Arahura ki te Kaporeihana o Māwhera, hei tohu ki te whanaungatanga i waenganui i a Poutini Ngāi Tahu me te pounamu. Nō te tau 2002 whakaaetia ai te Mahere Tiaki Pounamu a Ngāi Tahu.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Waitangi Tribunal, The Ngai Tahu report 1991 (Wai 27). Wellington: Brooker and Friend, 1991. › Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Basil Keane, 'Pounamu - Ngāi Tahu me te pounamu', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/pounamu/page-3 (accessed 6 December 2019)

He kōrero nā Basil Keane, i tāngia i te 12 Jun 2006