Kōrero: Ngā tari Māori

Whārangi 1. Ngā kaiaruaru i te huarahi

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Ngā mihinare

I tīmata te rangahautanga o te reo me ngā tikanga Māori i ngā whakapau kaha ā te hunga mihinare kia whai māramatanga atu ki te Māori kia tahuri ai ki te Rongopai.

Ko Thomas Kendall o te Rōpū o te Hāhi Mihinare tētahi o ngā mihinare tuatahi (e toru rātou) i noho tuatahi ki Aotearoa. Nānā te puka reo Māori tuatahi i whakaputaina i te tau 1815, arā ko: A korao [kōrero] no New Zealand; or, the New Zealander's first book; being an attempt to compose some lessons for the instruction of the natives. I te tau 1820 ka haere tahi rātou ko Hongi Hika, ko Waikato, ki Ingarangi mahi ai ki te Whare Wānanga o Cambridge i te taha o Samuel Lee, he kaiwete reo. Hua rawa ake i te mahi ngātahi ko te putanga tuatahi o Grammar and vocabulary of the language of New Zealand. Whai muri i te tutenga hei mihinare, ka noho a Kendall i a Tūngaroa, tamāhine a Rākau, he tohunga nō Rangihoua ki Pēwhairangi. I runga i ēnei hono ka tuhi kōrero mō te tātai arorangi Māori me te whakamahuki i te tikanga o ngā whakairo. 

Te reo haumako

He nui ngā mihinare o Aotearoa i rangahau i ngā reo Kāriki, Rātene hoki. I whakaute rātou ki te tau o te reo rangatira. Inā hoki te tuhi a te mihinare rā a William Yate: ‘He reo māene, he reo rōreka te reo Māori. Inā ka kūmea roatia te kōrero, kore rawa e kiokio nei ki te taringa … he reo ora e mātāpuna ai ngā kīanga, ngā whakataukī, ngā pehapehatū maha. Inā noa ōna whānuitanga, me ōna whāititanga.’1

Nā te mihinare Katorika o Wīwī nā Louis Servant i tuhi tāna tirohanga mō te ao Māori. Nō te tau 1973 ka whakapākehātia te puka e kī ana ko Customs and habits of the New Zealanders. Nā tētahi atu mihinare nā William Williams i whakaputa te papakupu Māori tuatahi i te tau 1844. Nāwai ka whakaputaina e tōna tama me tōna mokopuna (he pīhopa anō rāua) ngā putanga ō muri mai.  

Te Rangikāheke

Ko te kaiwhakaatu tuatahi pea ki te ao Māori ko Wiremu Te Rangikāheke o Ngāti Rangiwewehi. He mea ako ia ki te kura mīhana. Atu i te tau 1849 ka mahi ia mā Kāwana Kerei, me te ako anō i ngā tikanga me te reo Māori ki te kāwana. He wā e 36 pāuna i te tau ka utua ki a Te Rangikāheke, tāpiri atu ngā utu noho mōna me tana whānau. He huhua āna tuhinga reo Māori e pā ana ki te ao Māori, ā, i tuku īnati ia ki ngā tuhinga a Kerei mō ngā mōteatea e kī ana Ko ngā moteatea, me nga hakirara o nga Maori (1853), me Ko nga mahinga a nga tupuna Maori (1854), me tōna whakapākehātanga a Polynesian mythology (1855). 

Te Rōpū Poronīhia

I te tau 1892 ka whakatū a Stephenson Percy Smith rāua ko Edward Tregear (he kaimahi kāwanatanga rāua tahi) i te Rōpū Poronīhia. Ko te ito o te rōpū he rangahau i ngā kōrero a te Māori me ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Ka taritaria e Smit ngā taniwha o te ao Māori, pērā i a Āpirana Ngata rātou ko Māui Pōmare ko Te Rangi Hīroa. Rātou tokotoru he tautōhito i ākona ki ngā whare wānanga o te ao (ko Pōmare rāua ko Te Rangi Hīroa i kuraina hei rata, ā, ko Ngata hei rōia), ki ngā whare wānanga Māori hoki. Nāwai ka tū a Te Rangi Hīroa hei ahorangi mātauranga tikanga tangata ki te Whare Wānanga o Yale ki Amerika. Nō muri ka tū hei ringa tohu mō te whare taonga mātauranga momo tangata o Pīhopa, ki Hawaii.

Mai anō i te tau 1892 e whakaputaina ana te Hautaka o te Rōpū Poronīhia (e haere tonu nei i te tau 2013). Ko ngā pūkenga tonu o te ao Māori ōna ētita, pērā i a Te Pēhi. Ara anō ngā whakaputanga a te rōpū pērā i ngā whakaeminga kōrero tuku iho, te kohikohinga waiata a Ngata o Ngā mōteatea (1928) me te putanga hou a Kerei e kī ana ko Nga mahi a nga tupuna (1928). 

Maggie Papakura

He Te Arawa, he Ingarihi ngā mātua a Mākereti Papakura. Atu i te tau 1926 ki tōna matenga i te tau 1930, e kura ana ia ki te Whare Wānanga o Oxford. Nō te tau 1938 ka whakaputaina tōna tuhingaroa a The old-time Maori. Ko tēnei te whakaputanga matua tuatahi a tētahi kaimātai momo tangata Māori. 

Kupu tāpiri
  1. Yate, William, An account of New Zealand and of the formation and progress of the Church Missionary Society’s mission in the northern island. 2nd ed. Rānana: R. B. Seely and W. Burnside, 1835, p. 227. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Ranginui Walker, 'Ngā tari Māori - Ngā kaiaruaru i te huarahi', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-tari-maori/page-1 (accessed 17 November 2019)

He kōrero nā Ranginui Walker, i tāngia i te 22 Oct 2014