Kōrero: Ngā rōpū

Whārangi 1. Ngā rōpū Māori o te rautau 1800

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Ngā rōpū whakahaerenga iwi

I te ao o neherā ko te kāwai whakahaere o te ao Māori, ko te whānau, ko te hapū, ko te iwi. Nō te taunga mai o te Pākehā, ka rerekē haere ngā whakahaerenga ā-iwi, ā-tōrangapū hoki a te Māori. Hāunga te putanga mai o ngā rōpū hou i te rautau 1800, ka noho pū tonu te Māori ki ōna whānau, ki ōna marae kāinga.

Ngā rōpū ā-iwi

Nō te whakauka ki ngā muru whenua me ngā riri whenua ki te kāwanatanga ko te whakatūnga tērā o ngā haumi ā-iwi. I tērā rautau anō ka hua hoki ngā momo rōpū tōrangapū, whakapono hoki.

Te Wakaminenga

Āke pea ko te tauira tōmua o te whakahaerenga ā-iwi ko Te Wakaminenga o Nu Tirene. E huaina ana tēnei rōpū ki roto i Te Wakaputanga o te Rangatira o Nu Tirene.

I te 28 o ngā rā o Whiringa-ā-nuku 1835, ka whakaritea e te kainoho Pākehā, e James Busby ngā rangatira Māori kia waitohu te whakataunga nei. Ko te tikanga i te tau ka hui te rōpū nei, heoi kāore tērā i tatū. I whakapuakina tēnei rōpū ki roto i te Tiriti o Waitangi koia tonu nei tētahi o ngā rōpū e haina ana i te tiriti. Ko tōna ingoa i roto i te tiriti ko Te Wakaminenga o ngā Hapū o Nu Tireni.

Kīngitanga

Ka hua mai te Kīngitanga i ngā tau o te 1850 hei kaupare i ngā tāpaetanga whenua Māori. Ka uia te motu ka whakatauhia ko Te Wherowhero o Waikato hei kīngi Māori tuatahi. Nō muri ka huaina tōna ingoa ko Pōtatau Te Wherowhero.

Kua raupatuhia te nuinga o ngā whenua o ngā iwi o Waikato, ā, i pāngia kinotia te Kīngitanga. Heoi anō, kei te haere tonu ngā whakahaere o te Kīngitanga i te timatanga o te 2000.

Ngā rūnanga kāwanatanga

I te tekau tau 1860 ka whakamātau a Hōri Kerei ki te whakatū i ngā rūnanga kāwanatanga, e waru ōna kaikōmihana kāwanatanga, e 22 ngā kaiwhakawā tangata whenua. I te tau 1862 ka whakatūhia te rūnanga tuatahi ki Waimate. Ka whai hua ake te rūnanga i whakatūhia ki Muriwhenua i ētahi atu rohe.

Ngā hāhi Māori

Nō te taenga mai o te Whakapono Hou ki Aotearoa i ngā tau tōmua o te rautau 1800 ka rūmene katoa te iwi Māori ki ōna whare karakia. Taro iho ko te aranga mai o ngā poropiti Māori me ngā hāhi i whakaritea ki te Kawenata Tawhito me te Kawenata Hou.

Ko Te Ua Haumēne te poropiti o te hāhi Pai Mārire. He kaupapa tōrangapū anō tō te hāhi Māori nei. Nō muri mai ka horapa ōna mihingare Hauhau ki Te Ika-ā-Māui me te kawe i te whakahau haere i te Pai Mārire ki ngā iwi maha.

He whakaminenga ā-iwi tonu tō ngā poropiti a Te Whiti rāua ko Tohu ki te kāinga o Parihaka.

Ngā rōpū whakahē

I whanake mai ngā rōpū whakahe ki roto o Ngāti Kahungunu ki te Matau-ā-Māui i te tau 1871 hei atete i ngā tapaetanga whenua. Ko tona upoko ko Hēnare Matua, a, ko Te Wananga tona niupepa. Tokorua hoki ngā kaitorangapu i tautoko i tēnei rōpū, ko Henry Russell rāua ko John Sheehan.

Kotahitanga

Mai i te tekau tau 1880 ka tipu mai ngā rōpū kotahitanga. Ko tā rātou kaupapa matua he whakakao i ngā rōpū ā-iwi ki te tautohe mō ētahi ture tika mō te whenua. E rua ngā rōpū kotahitanga i te Tai Tokerau, ko tērā o Ngāpuhi, me tō Ngāti Whātua.

Nāwai ka tāwharautia ngā rōpū nei ki raro i te Paremata o Te Kotahitanga i te tekau tau 1890. He whakahaerenga ā-motu tēnei, ko ōna kaitautoko nō ngā iwi maha.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Ngapare Hopa, 'Ngā rōpū - Ngā rōpū Māori o te rautau 1800', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-ropu/page-1 (accessed 21 November 2019)

He kōrero nā Ngapare Hopa, i tāngia i te 5 May 2011, updated 1 Jun 2017