Kōrero: Ngā auahatanga o Aotearoa

Whārangi 8. Ngā toi whakaari

Ngā whakaahua

Ngā whakaari

Nā ngā kamupene o Amerika, o Ingarangi, o Ahitereiria ngā whakaari tuatahi i mau ki Aotearoa i ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau atu i 1860. Heoi, i pōturi te whanaketanga o ēnei whakaaturanga. Tatū ki te tekau tau atu i 1950, kātahi ka tū he kamupene whakaari ngaio. Hāunga tērā, mai anō kua tū ngā karapu whakaari, ngā whare toi whakaari, ngā rōpū ōpera puta noa i te whenua.

Ngā whakaari ngaio

Ko te whare whakaari o Downstage i Te Whanganui-a-Tara te whare whakaari ngaio tuatahi o Aotearoa, ka tū i 1964. I te tekau tau atu i 1970 ka whakatūria ko te Court ki Ōtautahi, ko Centrepoint ki Te Papa-i-ōia, ko Circa ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara, ko Fortune ki Ōtepoti. Tāpirihia atu te kamupene toi whakaari o Tāmaki-makau-rau (Auckland Theatre Company), koinei ngā kamupene ngaio nui o te motu. Ko ētahi atu whakaari ka puta mā ngā tamariki, mā te hunga rangatahi, mā te iwi Māori. Ka kaha ngā mahi a Theatresports, te whakaari katakata.

Ngā mahi o muri

E tautokona ana ngā whakaari ngaio e te New Zealand Association for Theatre Craft, Design and Technology. Ko Toi Whakaari, ko te kura whakaari o Aotearoa (New Zealand Drama School), ko ngā pūtahi whakaako, ko rātou kei te whakaako i te hunga ka kuhu ki ngā mahi toi whakaari. Ko ngā tāngata rongonui pēnei i a Michael Hurst, Miranda Harcourt, Jacob Rajan mā ētahi i puta i Toi Whakaari. Ko Playmarket tētahi pokapū āwhina i ngā kaituhi whakaari kia whanake ai ā rātou whakaaturanga. Ko Greg McGee (Foreskin’s lament), Roger Hall (Conjugal rights), Briar Grace-Smith (Purapurawhetū) ētahi i āwhinatia.

Ngā kanikani

Mai i te tekau tau 1840 ka kaha ngā tautoko ki ngā momo kanikani pēnei i te folk me te ballroom. Nō muri ka hau ngā momo kanikani pēnei i te rock and roll, te kanikani rārangi (line dancing), te Ceroc. Tū roa ana ngā karapu kanikani pērā i ērā o Koterana, o Airana, ā, kei reira hoki ngā rōpū ā-motu hei tautoko i a rātou. Kei te aro nui hoki te taupori ki ngā momo kanikani mai tāwāhi pērā i ērā o Āhia me te tonga o Amerika pērā i te tango mai Āketina.

Te kanikani hei whakaaturanga whakaari

Ahakoa ngā whakaakoranga mō ngā kanikani hītekiteki me ngā kanikani o te ao hōu i mua i te tau 1950, kāore he tuwheratanga mō ngā tohunga kanikani kia whai oranga. Ko te Rōpū Kanikani Hītekiteki Roera o Aotearoa (Royal New Zealand Ballet) te kamupene ngaio tuatahi o Aotearoa, i whakatūhia i te tau 1953. Whakaako ai rātou i ngā kanikani hītekiteki me ngā kanikani o te ao hōu. Ko tētahi o ngā tohunga kanikani kua puta ki te ao i tēnei kura, ko Tā Jon Trimmer. Kei reira anō ētahi kamupene mō ngā kanikani hōu, pērā i a Footnote Dance Company (whakatūhia i 1985), i a Black Grace (1995), Mau Dance (1995), Touch Compass (1997), i a Atamira Dance Collective (2000). Ia tau ka tū tētahi taiopenga kīia ai ko Tempo – Te Hui Ahurei mō te kanikani ki Tāmaki-makau-rau. Kei te whakaakongia te kanikani ki ētahi whare whakaako pērā i te kura ako kanikani o Aotearoa (New Zealand School of Dance) me te kura a te whare wānanga o Wairaka mō ngā toi whakaari me ngā kiriata (UNITEC’s School of Performing and Screen Arts) ā, e tautokona ana e te rōpū ā-motu, a Kanikani Aotearoa (Dance New Zealand, DANZ).

Kapa Haka Tekau-mā-rua (Super 12)

Kei te hau te rongo mō ngā whakataetae whutupaoro Tekau-mā-rua, arā, te Super 12, i waenganui i ngā whenua o Aotearoa, o Ahitereiria, o te tonga o Āwherika. Heoi, arā anō tētahi whakataetae Super 12 kāore i te mōhiotia whānuitia, ko te Super 12 mō ngā kapa haka. Ka tū tēnei whakataetae ia Kirihimete ki Tūranganui-a-Kiwa. Nō te tau 2001 ka tīmata. E 12 ngā rōpū, e 12 ngā tāngata kei ia kapa, me oti ngā mahi i roto i te e 12 meneti. Me puta te wairua auaha i roto i ngā mahi a tēnā kapa, a tēnā kapa i runga i te papa tū waewae.

Kapa haka

Ko te kapa haka te toi whakaari ahurei ki te Māori. Ka whai wāhi te haka, te poi, te waiata-ā-ringa, te waiata koroua, ki tēnei toi whakaari. Ka nui ngā tautoko a te iwi Māori mō ēnei mahi, ā, kei te hōrapa ngā kapa haka ki ngā whare kura, kura tini, wāhi mahi puta i te motu.

Ko ētahi o ngā kapa haka rongonui ko Waihīrere o Tūranganui-a-Kiwa rāua ko Te Waka Huia o Tāmaki-makau-rau. Ko ētahi o ngā kaiako rongonui ko Ngāpō (Bub) rāua ko Nan Wehi, ko Pita Sharples, ko Te Hue Rangi, ko Tihi Puanaki. Ka tīmata ngā whakataetae kapa haka ā-motu i te tau 1972, i raro i ngā whakahaere a te Rōpū mō ngā Whakataetae Kapa Haka ā-Motu (Aotearoa Traditional Māori Performing Arts).

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Nancy Swarbrick, 'Ngā auahatanga o Aotearoa - Ngā toi whakaari', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-auahatanga-o-aotearoa/page-8 (accessed 13 November 2018)

Story by Nancy Swarbrick, published 8 Feb 2005