Kōrero: Ngā auahatanga o Aotearoa

Whārangi 2. Ngā toi ataata, ngā mahi toi

Ngā whakaahua

He tikanga mai anō

Hoki rā anō te hītori o ngā toi ataata me ngā mahi toi ki ngā tau e 700 ki mua, ki te taenga tuatahitanga a te Māori ki Aotearoa i Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Ka kawea mai e rātou ō rātou toi whakairo, ō rātou toi raranga. I te taenga mai o te Pākehā me āna toi, ka whai pakiaka ia ki tēnei whenua, me te titiro tonu ki nga nekeneke o te ao toi ki tāwāhi. Nō ngā tau tata nei kātahi anō ka arongia whānuitia ngā pūtakenga e rua o ngā toi ataata me ngā mahi toi o Aotearoa.

Te whakaaro nui ki ngā mahi toi

Nā tētahi tiro whānui o te tau 2002 i tohu ki te mea e 36% o te taupori o Aotearoa i hoko tētahi mahi toi taketake i roto i te e 12 marama ki muri, e 48% i tae ki tētahi taiwhanga whakaatu, whare taonga rānei. He maha ngā taiwhanga whakaatu – tūmatanui, tūmataiti hoki – ki Aotearoa, e hāngai ana ki ngā hiahia o tēnā, o tēnā whaitua o te motu. He nui ngā tautoko mō ngā tāngata toi pērā i ngā tohungatā a John Reynolds, a Bill Hammond, a Peter Robinson; ngā kaiwhakairo a Neil Dawson, a Jacqueline Fraser mā; te kaitango whakaahua a Anne Noble; te tohunga toi kōata a Ann Robinson.

Ngā Taiwhanga Toi

Kei ngā tāone matua o te motu ngā taiwhanga toi nui pērā i te Taiwhanga Whakaatu o Tāmaki-makau-rau (Auckland Art Gallery), te Taiwhanga Tāone o Te Whanganui-a-Tara (City Gallery), te Taiwhanga Whakaatu o Ōtautahi (Christchurch Art Gallery), te Taiwhanga Whakaatu o Ōtepoti (Dunedin City Art Gallery). Ko Te Papa Tongarewa i Te Whanganui-a-Tara kei te pupuri i te kohinga taonga toi o te motu. Kua roa e tū ana ētahi taiwhanga whakaatu pērā i te whare taonga o Suter i Whakatū (Suter art museum). Ahakoa tērā, he maha tonu ngā whare toi, pērā i te whare taonga o Dowse ki Te Awakairangi me te taiwhanga whakaatu o Govett-Brewster ki Ngāmotu i whakatūria i roto i te e 30 tau kua pahure. Nō te tekau tau atu i 1960 ka huaki ngā taiwhanga hoko taonga; kua maha ēnei momo whare i ēnei rā. Kei te whakamahia te ipurangi hei hoko mahi toi.

Te whanake i te hunga toi

Kei a Toi Aotearoa ngā pūtea āwhina i te hunga toi; te hunga whakatū whakaaturanga, tūmahi hoki; te hunga haere ki tāwāhi mahi ai. Kei reira anō ngā rōpū tautoko i ngā tāngata toi, pērā i a Photoforum me te New Zealand Society of Potters. Kei ngā whare wānanga, ngā kuratini, ngā pūtahi, ngā kura tūmataiti e akohia ana ngā mātauranga toi. Ko te putanga toi rongonui rawa ki Aotearoa, ko Art New Zealand. Kei roto te nui o ngā tuhinga a pā ana ki te toi.

Te auaha motukā

Koinei te ‘Trekka’, te mahinga toi a Michael Stevenson mō te Venice Biennale o te tau 2003. E whakaatu ana tēnei mahi i ngā āhuatanga e paihere ana i a Aotearoa ki te ao. Ka hangaia te waka nei te Trekka kia ōrite tōna hanga ki tō te jeep. Ko ētahi wāhanga o te Trekka nō Aotearoa, ko te anga (chassis) nō Czechoslovakia, ko te mīhini nā te kamupene Skoda. Ka hangaia tēnei motukā i ngā tekau tau o 1960, o 1970, i te wā kīhai i tino rahi ngā motukā hōu ki Aotearoa. Ka tū whakahīhī a Aotearoa mō tēnei waka, he whakaaturanga mō te tohungatanga, mō te tū motuhake o Aotearoa. I tū anō te Trekka hei tohu mō ngā wawata o te motu mōna anō. Heoi, nā te mea i ahu katoa mai te hoahoanga me ngā wāhanga mō tēnei motukā i tāwāhi, he tohu te Trekka ki te whirinakitanga tonutanga a te ōhanga me ngā toi o Aotearoa ki ngā whenua ki tāwāhi.

Toi Māori

Mai anō i te tekau tau atu i 1970, kei te nui haere ngā toi Māori. I taua wā ka whakatūria Ngā Puna Waihanga, he rōpū whakahui i ngā tāngata toi Māori. Ko ētahi o ngā tohunga o tēnei rōpū ko Ralph Hotere, ko Para Matchitt, ko Robyn Kahukiwa, ko ngā tauhōu pēnei i a Michael Parekōwhai rāua ko Shane Cotton. Ko tētahi kaupapa nui whakaharahara ko te whakaaturanga o Te Māori ki te ao whānui i te tau 1984. Nā Te Māori tuwhera ai ngā kanohi o te ao, o Aotearoa tonu, ki ngā toi o te Ao Māori. E tautokona ana ngā toi a te Māori e Toi Māori Aotearoa, he rōpū o ngā tāngata toi. Ko toi iho te waitohu manaaki i ngā mahi, i ngā taonga a ngā tāngata toi Māori.

Tirohanga nui

Kei te hau te rongo ki tāwāhi mō ngā mahi toi o Aotearoa. I roto i ngā tekau tau tata kua taha, kua nui haere te awe o te Sydney Biennale me te Asia-Pacific Triennale i runga i ngā mahi toi o Aotearoa. Heoi, nō te tau 2001 rā anō kātahi anō ka uru a Aotearoa ki roto i te Venice Biennale. Nō te tau 2004 ka tuwhera ki Amerika te whakaaturanga nui rawa atu o ngā toi hōu o Aotearoa me Te Moananui-a-Kiwa.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Nancy Swarbrick, 'Ngā auahatanga o Aotearoa - Ngā toi ataata, ngā mahi toi', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-auahatanga-o-aotearoa/page-2 (accessed 22 May 2019)

Story by Nancy Swarbrick, published 8 Feb 2005