Kōrero: Ngā auahatanga o Aotearoa

Whārangi 7. Ngā Pūoru

Ngā whakaahua

Pūoru e manakotia ana

I ngā tekau tau o 1920 o 1930, ka tae ngā pūoru blues, jazz, country mai i Amerika; nō te tau 1955 ka tae mai te rock and roll. Kua puta ki te ao ētahi o ngā tohunga kaiwaiata o ēnei tūmomo pūoru, inā; te kaiwhakatangi piana a Mike Nock, te kaiwaiata a Bic Runga, ngā rōpū pēnei i a Split Enz, The Muttonbirds, The Datsuns. Nā te wāhi nui o te pūoru ki te iwi o Aotearoa, i te tau 2000 ka whakatūria e te kāwanatanga te Kōmihana Ahumahi Pūoru o Aotearoa (New Zealand Music Industry Commission) hei whakatairanga i ngā pūoru o Aotearoa.

Te ahumahi tango pūoru

E ai ki tētahi rangahau i te tau 2002, i roto i te 12 marama i taha, e 75% o te taupori ka whakarongo pūoru i runga reo irirangi, e 33% o te iwi ka haere ki ngā taiopenga me ngā rā pūoru. Taea noatia ai ngā pūoru o tāwāhi i runga reo irirangi, kōpae waiata, pouaka whakaata, rīpene whakaata, ipurangi rānei. Atu i te tekau tau o 1940 ka whanake te ahumahi tango pūoru o Aotearoa. I tino rongonui te kamupene o Flying Nun mō tā rātou whakatairanga ki Peretānia me Amerika i ngā rōpū whakatangitangi o Ōtepoti, pērā i The Cleans rātou ko The Chills.

Ngā pūoru a te Māori, ngā pūoru a Te Moananui-a-Kiwa

Nā ngā kaiwaiata o te ao Māori pērā i a Howard Morrison, Tui Teka, Dalvanius Prime, Moana Maniapoto, Hinewehi Mohi mā, i whanake tētahi momo pūoru Māori i whai wāhi nui ki te whakaoranga o te reo Māori. Nō muri ka whakatūria te Māori Music Industry Coalition. Kua puea mai he oro o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa ake, ka tauirahia i ngā waiata a Ardijah, a Che Fu, a Nesian Mystik, a wai atu. I te tau 2004 ka riro te rahi o ngā tohu o ngā whakataetae pūoru o Aotearoa (New Zealand Music Awards) i a Scribe, he uri nō Hāmoa.

Ngā pēne nanakia

He rite tonu te tau o ngā tikanga a iwi kē ki Aotearoa pērā i ngā mahi nanakia a ngā pēne. Tērā tētahi wā e noho ana te pēne Shihad ki tētahi mōtera i Kirikiriroa. Nāwai ā, ka hanga pōuri rātou i te mea, kāore anō rātou kia whiu pouaka whakaata ki waho, pērā i ngā pēne nanakia ki tāwāhi. Ka whakamārama atu a Tame Larkin te kaipatu taramu, kāore ō rātou pūtea mō ērā mahi. Ka wānangahia te take nei, ko te whakatau, he pai ake te porowhiu i te tāina (toaster). Nā Phil Knight te kairarapi kutā te tāina i porowhiu ki waho. Tata tonu ka wāhia tētahi waka Mercedes.

Ngā tikanga tuku iho

Kua roa e whāia kahatia ana ngā pūoru folk, ā, kei te hōrapa ngā karapu hāpai i tēnei momo pūoru. Kei te whanake hoki te pūoru world. Ko tētahi o ngā pūoru tuatahi o rāwāhi kia tau ki Aotearoa ko ngā pūngawī (pipe band) o Koterana. He maha ngā rōpū pūngawī kei te motu. He maha anō ngā manene e heri mai ana i ā rātau ake pūoru. Pērā i te rōpū a Many Hands, e nunumi ana i ngā pūoru o tō rātou ake iwi ki ētahi o te ao hōu, kia puea he oro rerekē.

Ngā whiwhinga tohu me ngā taiopenga

He maha ngā hui whakawhiwhi tohu, whakanui i te jazz, folk, ā-iwi (ethnic), taiwhenua (country), arā atu. Ko ētahi o ēnei hui whakawhiwhinga tohu kua tū mō te wā roa. Mai anō i te tekau tau atu i 1970, ka tū ngā taiopenga pūoru nui pērā i a Sweetwaters, Nambassa me te Rā Nui (The Big Day Out). Ia tau ka tū te marama pūoru o Aotearoa (New Zealand Music Month). He maha ngā tohu o te ahumahi pūoru ka whakawhiwhia ki ngā tohu pūoru o Aotearoa (New Zealand Music Awards).

Ngā pūoru tūroa (classical music)

Tokoiti o te iwi ka aro ake ki ngā pūoru tūroa (classical). E ai ki tētahi rangahau o te tau 2002, e 11% o te taupori i tae ki te mātaki i tētahi whakaaturanga pūoru tūroa, ā, e 26% i whakarongo ki taua momo waiata i runga reo irirangi i roto i te e 12 marama ka taha. Tokomaha ngā kaiwhakatangi tūroa i tau ki Aotearoa whai muri i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao. I taua wā anō ka tīmata te whai a ētahi o Aotearoa pēnei i a Maurice Till (piana) me Michael Houstoun (piana) mā i taua momo pūoru hei oranga, hei mahi mā rātou. I mua, nā te aroha, nā te ngākau nui ngā kaupapa neke ai. Hei tauira, he maha ngā rōpū waiata tira, ā, kei te maha o ngā tāone puta i te motu ngā pēne parāhi.

Waiata

Tokomaha ngā kaiwaiata o Aotearoa kei te rongonui ki tāwāhi, pērā i a Donald McIntyre, Malvina Major, Kiri Te Kanawa, Jonathan Lemalu. Rahi rātou i puta i te whakataetae Mobil Song Quest (ināianei ko te Lexus Song Quest). Ko te Ōpera ā-Motu o NBR (NBR National Opera) me ngā rōpū ā-rohe kei te whakahaere i ngā whakaaturanga whaiutu o te motu. Ko te kāhui waiata tira o Aotearoa (New Zealand Choral Federation) te kaihonohono i ngā hapori, ngā rōpū rangatahi, ngā rōpū waiata o ngā whare karakia i ngā mahi waiata tira.

Ngā pūoru whakatangitangi

I te tau 1946 ka tū te New Zealand Symphony Orchestra (NZSO); i te tau 1987 ka whakatūhia te Chamber Orchestra a te NZSO. He tira pūoru whaiutu kei Tāmaki-makau-rau, kei Te Whanganui-a-Tara, kei Ōtautahi. I te tau 1945 ka tū te Chamber Music New Zealand ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara, ko tā rātau, he karanga i ngā rōpū nui o te ao ki Aotearoa, he whakatairanga hoki i ngā whakaari nui pērā i te New Zealand String Quartet i whakatūria i te 1987. Arā anō ētahi kei te whai i ngā waiata tōmua a te Pākehā. Otirā, e whāia kahatia ana ngā pūoru tawhito o te ao Māori. Ko Hirini Melbourne rāua ko Richard Nunns ētahi tohunga o ngā pūoru tawhito o te Māori.

Tito waiata

Ko Douglas Lilburn te kaitito waiata rongonui tuatahi o Aotearoa, i puta ake i ngā tau tekau tau atu i 1940. He awe nui tō ngā pūoru a te Māori rātou ko ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Mai i te tau 1991, ka tū te Pokapū mō ngā Pūoru o Aotearoa (Centre for New Zealand Music) (SOUNZ) ki te whakatairanga i ngā mahi a ngā kaitito pērā i a Jack Body, Gillian Whitehead, Gareth Farr, John Psathas.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Nancy Swarbrick, 'Ngā auahatanga o Aotearoa - Ngā Pūoru', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-auahatanga-o-aotearoa/page-7 (accessed 20 May 2019)

Story by Nancy Swarbrick, published 8 Feb 2005