Kōrero: Ngā auahatanga o Aotearoa

Whārangi 4. Hoahoanga (architecture)

Ngā whakaahua

Ngā awe

He nui te wāhi o ngā hoahoanga o tāwāhi ki ngā hoahoanga o Aotearoa. I tā rātou taenga ki Aotearoa i te pokapū o te rau tau e 1800, ka hiahia ngā Pākehā ki ngā momo hanga whare i mahue atu ki Peretānia. Nāwai ā, ka whāia ngā momo hoahoanga o Ūropi, o Amerika. Kia tīkina ētahi tauira pai o ngā momo hoahoanga mai tāwāhi; te momo o te Gothic o ngā tekau tau 1840-60, e kitea māramatia ai i ngā mahi a Benjamin Mountfort rāua ko Frederick Thatcher mai Ingarangi; te momo o te tekau tau atu i 1930, e arotahi ana ki te ātaahua o te whare, aha rānei kei te hangaia; nā ngā tohunga hoahoanga mai i Ūropi pēnei i a Ernst Plischke ēnei mahi.

Heoi, mai anō i te tīmatanga, ka huri haere ngā hoahoanga o tāwāhi kia rite ki te taiao o tēnei whenua te āhua. Hei tauira, nā te mātotoru o te ngahere, ka nui te mahia o te papa rākau. Ka matatau haere ngā tāngata hoahoanga ki te āhuarangi, te whiti o te rā, tae rawa ki te āhua o te noho o te iwi o Aotearoa. He awe nui ngā hanga tūturu o Aotearoa – pēnei i te whare Māori – ki runga i ngā tokona whakaaro o ngā tāngata hoahoanga.

Te whare Māori

Hei ārai i te makariri, ka hangaa e te Māori tōna whare kia tapawhā; kia pakupaku iho te tatau; kia roa te tuanui e takoto ai he mahau; ko ngā takuahi ki waenganui; ko ngā wāhi moe ki ngā pakitara o te whare. He pēnei tonu te hanga o ngā wharenui o ēnei rā. Ka kitea te tauira o te whare Māori ki ētahi atu momo whare kua hangaia.

Te hēte

Me pakari te tū o ngā whare o ngā Pākehā tōmua ka tika; ō rātou hēte kuti hipi, miraka kau hoki. Ka mahia ō rātou whare ki ngā papanga o te taiao. Nā tēnei āhua ka puta ko te momo whare bach / crib rānei. Kāore noa iho e nui te utu mō ngā papanga hei hanga i ēnei momo whare – he fibrolite, he haeana kōwakawaka, he papa rākau hangarua noa iho.

Te tiaki i ngā whare tawhito

I te tau 1954 ka whakatūria te Pouhere Taonga (New Zealand Historic Places Trust) hei tiaki i ngā wāhi nui tae atu ki ngā whare tawhito. (I te tau 2014, tapaina anōtia ko Heritage New Zealand.) Ahakoa tana kaha, kia tae rā anō ki te paunga o te rau tau 1900, kātahi anō ka kitea whānuitia te wāhi nui o aua whare, aua wāhi nui. Nui ngā whare tawhito i turakina i te tekau tau atu i 1980, i te wā e tino kaha ana ngā tauhokohoko hanga whare; ka turakina ngā whare tawhito kia pai te whakatū whare hōu. Ahakoa tōna tikanga, mā te Ture Whakahaere Rawa (Resource Management Act) 1991 ngā whare tawhito e tiaki i ngā tutetute o te ao hurihuri, kāore tonu he whakamarumaru tūturu mō rātou. Heoi, kei te rongo i te ia o ngā whakaaro e huri ana: hei tauira, kei te muia te hui toi o Ahuriri i te wae tāpoi.

Te whakaako hoahoanga

Kei te kaha te hoahoanga ki Aotearoa. Ko ētahi whare tūmatanui nō ngā rā tata nei ka whakatūhia ko te Academy of Performing Arts i te whare wānanga o Waikato (nā Warren & Mahoney); te taunga waka rererangi o Te Whanganui-a-Tara (nā Craig Moller), te taiwhanga toi o Adams i te whare wānanga o Wikitōria i Te Whanganui-a-Tara (nā Ian Athfield); te taiwhanga pāngarau, tatauranga, pūtaiao rorohiko ki te whare wānanga o Waitaha (nā Architectus). Kei te whakaakongia te hoahoanga ki ngā whare wānanga o Wikitōria, o Tāmaki, o Wairaka (Unitec). Ko te Rōpū Hoahoanga o Aotearoa (New Zealand Institute of Architects) te rōpū ngaio ā-motu. Ko tā rātou mahi he hāpai i te ngaiotanga i roto i ngā mahi hoahoanga mā te whakawhiwhi tohu ia tau. Kei ngā maheni pērā i te Architecture New Zealand ka kitea ngā ariā mō te hoahoanga.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Nancy Swarbrick, 'Ngā auahatanga o Aotearoa - Hoahoanga (architecture)', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-auahatanga-o-aotearoa/page-4 (accessed 20 May 2019)

Story by Nancy Swarbrick, published 8 Feb 2005