Kōrero: Ngā auahatanga o Aotearoa

Whārangi 3. Tauira me te auaha

Ngā whakaahua

He tikanga auaha whai kiko

Tērā tētahi kōrero nui e mea ana i taketake mai ngā tauiratanga (design) o Aotearoa i tōna matatau ki te hanga mea whai kiko mai te iti noa iho. Heoi, he tika tonu te kōrero ka toko ake ngā auahatanga o Aotearoa i te taiao, i ngā papanga e wātea ana, i ngā papanga iti rānei te utu. Me kore ake te korowai hei kākahu i a ia, te pā hei mahi ika hei whāngai i a ia, kua mate kē te Māori i te mātao, i te kore kai. Heoi, i tua atu i te oranga ka tareka i ēnei taonga; tukuna ihotia ai ēnei hei taonga kura i roto i ngā whakatipuranga. Nāwai rā ka auahatia e te Pākehā āna anō taonga ātaahua, whai kiko – te ipu putiputi Crown Lynn, me te tūru ‘Curvesse’.

Whanaketanga o ngā tauira (design) o Aotearoa

Tatū ki te tekau tau atu i 1980, i tauirahia te nuinga o ngā auahatanga o Aotearoa - ahumahi, roto taiwhanga, taonga kahurangi, kākahu - i ngā ia o tāwāhi. Whāia, nā te pāmamao o Aotearoa ki te ao, nā ngā aukati hoko a ētahi whenua, ka tipu he momo tauira tūturu o Aotearoa. Ko ētahi auahatanga hōu i puta mai, ko ngā pūkaha Hamilton mō ngā waka (jet boat); te motupaika o John Britten; ngā kākahu me ngā tau uwhi tuarā (backpack); taputapu mō te noho ki waho (outdoors). He whakaaturanga katoa ēnei taputapu i te wairua auaha o Aotearoa.

Tae rawa ki te pokapū o te tekau tau atu i 1990, kua whai wāhi nui ngā whakairo, ngā tohu a te Māori, a ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, a Aotearoa whānui tonu ki roto i ngā tauira me ngā hoahoanga o Aotearoa. Taro kau ake, ka puea ake tētahi momo tauira kīia ai, ‘Pacific minimalism’. Ka whakatūria te Designers Institute of New Zealand i te tau 1991 ki te whakatairanga i ngā momo tauira – graphic, spatial, industrial, fashion, craft; i whakatūria anō hoki ia hei whakahaere hei ako hoki i ēnei take.

Hoko ki te ao

Kua whānui te titiro o Aotearoa ki ngā tauira ahumahi, kua titiro ki tāwāhi ki ngā auahatanga ki reira. Kua angitū ētahi kamupene nā te arotahi ki te kiritaki, te nanao ki ngā hangarau hōu, te whakangao moni ki ngā mahi rangahau, te hanga rautaki hokohoko hoki. Ko ngā taonga kua hangaia mō ngā mahi noa o ia rā - pūrere horoi maitai, tūru, pahi, aha atu. Ko ētahi o ngā whanaketanga kāore anō kia māhia. E whakatairanga ana te tari kāwanatanga a Design Industry Taskforce i ngā whanonga mō te tauira i te taha o ngā kamupene o Aotearoa hei aha, hei whakapiki ake i te rahi o ngā rawa ka hokona ki tai. Ko te ahumahi rorohiko, ipurangi hoki kei te rongo i ngā nekeneke o te ao.

Ko te pae tawhiti kia tata

Kei runga noa atu a Aotearoa mō te tauira pere rua (yacht). Ko Amerika te kāinga o Bruce Farr, tohunga ki te tauira pere rua. I whānau mai ia ki Tāmaki-makau-rau. He maha ngā whakataetae puta i te ao kua riro i ngā pere rua nāna i tauira. Atu i te tau 1981, kua reihi ngā pere rua o Farr ki ngā whakataetae taiāwhio te ao. Ka wikitōria aua waka i ngā tau 1981, 1986, 1990, 1994, 1998.

Ngā ia o ngā hoahoa (fashion)

I ngā rā ki mua, tino kūare a Aotearoa ki ngā nekeneke o te ao hoahoa ki tāwāhi. Nā te tawhiti o Aotearoa i ngā pokapū hoahoa o te ao, tērā te wā, kotahi tau te tōmuri o te taunga o ngā hoahoa hōu. Nā te āhuarangi me te nui o ngā mahi ki waho, ka nui atu te aro ki te pai o te kuhu o te kākahu, tērā i te pai o te āhua. Nā te noho tonu o te iwi o Aotearoa, tāpae atu ki te nui o ngā hākinakina ki waho, ka hāngai ngā kākahu ki ērā āhuatanga; hei tauira, ko te momo koti / poraka, te Swanndri me ngā hū rekereke (jandals). I hua anō hoki ngā mau kākahu heahea rawa atu – te mau ‘tarau poto’ me ngā ‘tōkena roa’ ; nui te kitea o ēnei kākahu i ngā tari mahi i te tekau tau o 1950 ahu atu ki te tekau tau o 1980.

Ko wai ka whai, ko wai ka ārahi

Mai anō, ka rapuhia e ētahi ngā hoahoa o tāwāhi. I ngā tekau tau o 1960, o 1970, nā ngā tohu hoahoa ā-tau a Benson & Hedges i tīmata te whakatairangatanga o ngā mahi hoahoa kākahu ki Aotearoa. Hāunga, ka toro whakawaho tonu te ao hoahoa ki rāwāhi mō ngā oranga. Nāwai ā, ka huri te ao. Ka tū te wiki mō ngā hoahoa ki Rānana (London Fashion Week) i te tau 1999; tokowhā ngā kaihoahoa o Aotearoa i whakanuia mō te rawe rawa atu o ā rātou mahi - a World, a Nom D, a Zambesi, a Karen Walker. Kīia ai ā rātou mahi ‘ahakoa pōuri, koi ana’.

Ahumahi hoahoa

Kei te whai hua anō te ahumahi hoahoa o Aotearoa i te ōhanga o te ao whānui. Kua makuru te tipu o ngā akomanga hoahoa ki ngā kuratini. Ka tū a Tāmaki-makau-rau, a Te Whanganui-a-Tara, a Ōtepoti hei pokapū mō te ahumahi hoahoa ki Aotearoa. Kitea ai kei ngā tāone nui ngā ‘kōhanga’ mō te hoahoa me ngā toi. I tīmataria te wiki o te ao hoahoa o Aotearoa (New Zealand Fashion Week) i te tau 2000 hei whakaatu i nga kaihoahoa me ā rātou mahi.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Nancy Swarbrick, 'Ngā auahatanga o Aotearoa - Tauira me te auaha', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-auahatanga-o-aotearoa/page-3 (accessed 14 November 2019)

Story by Nancy Swarbrick, published 8 Feb 2005