Kōrero: Ngā auahatanga o Aotearoa

Whārangi 6. Te tuhi me te whakaputa pukapuka

Ngā whakaahua

Te tuhi me te whakaputa pukapuka

He wāhi nui tō te Māori rāua ko te tangata whai ki te koiora o Aotearoa; whai anō ka nui te tipu, ka nui te pai o ngā tuhituhinga. Tokomaha rātou i puea ake i ngā tipuranga rerekē hei kaituhi mō Aotearoa, pērā i a Bill Manhire, Patricia Grace, Albert Wendt, Maurice Gee, Margaret Mahy. Kei te hau te rongo mō rātou ki tāwāhi.

Ngā tuhinga, ngā whakaputa pukapuka a te Māori

Hīkaka te iwi Māori ki te nanao ki te pene hei putanga whakaaro, ki te reo Māori, ki te reo Pākehā hoki. Kohikohia ai ngā waiata me ngā kōrero a te Maori. Nō te tekau tau atu i 1920 ka tāngia e Tā Āpirana Ngata a Ngā mōteatea. I ngā tekau tau o 1960, o 1970, ka kitea te wairua auaha i ngā tuhinga i te reo Pākehā a ngā Māori pērā i a Hone Tūwhare, i a Witi Ihimaera mā.

Ngā tāngata whai

I te rau tau 1800, he pai ake ngā tuhinga a ngā Pākehā mēnā e kōrero pono ana rātou; inarā ka kitea tēnei āhuatanga i ngā rātaka me ngā pūrongo o tērā wā. He roa te wā kātahi ka whanake ake ētahi kaituhi Pākehā me ā rātou whiti, pakiwaitara rawe, pērā i a Jane Mander, Ursula Bethell, Frank Sargeson, Allen Curnow, James K. Baxter. I te tekau tau atu i 1930 ka puta tētahi momo tirohanga i waenganui i ngā kaituhi o Aotearoa mō ngā momo tuhituhi o tēnei whenua; ka mau haere tēnei tirohanga i roto i ngā tau, ka pā tōna awe ki te rahi o ngā kaituhi. Mai i taua wā, kua pakari ētahi kaituhi me ā rātou mahi ki te ao, pērā i a Elizabeth Knox.

Ngā taituarā o ngā kaituhi

Whakapau kaha ai te New Zealand Society of Authors (PEN NZ) mō ngā kaituhi whaiutu o Aotearoa i roto i ngā whitiwhitinga me ngā kamupene whakaputa tuhinga, ngā teihana pāho, ngā whare whakaari. I tua atu, ka whiriwhiria e rātou te manatārua, ngā tiringa, aha atu. Ko te Rōpū Kaituhi o Aotearoa (New Zealand Writers Guild) te kanohi mō ngā kaituhi whaiutu i ngā whiriwhiringa mō te pouaka whakaata, reo irirangi, taiwhanga whakaatu, rīpene whakaata, kōpae pāpāho, aha atu. I tēnei wā, neke atu i te e 50 ngā tohu, takuhe, whakataetae hoki mā ngā kaituhi, ā, kei te tokomaha ake ngā akomanga tuhituhi i ngā whare wānanga, i ngā kura tini. He maha ngā maheni kua tū, kua hinga hoki mai i te putanga tuatahitanga o Landfall i te tau 1947, pērā i a Sport me New Zealand Books.

Tauhokohoko pukapuka

Iti noa ngā tauhokohoko pukapuka i Aotearoa. Heoi, ahakoa iti kei te kaha te whakataetae. Ko Ngā Kaiwhakaputa Pukapuka o Aotearoa (Book Publishers Association of New Zealand) e waha nei i ā rātou kaupapa. Kua hokona ētahi o ngā kamupene o Aotearoa pēnei i a Whitcombe & Tombs e ngā kamupene nui o te ao. Ko Booksellers New Zealand kei te whakatenatena i te hokonga o ngā pukapuka o Aotearoa ki tāwāhi, koia hoki te kaiwhakahaere o ētahi whakawhiwhinga tohu mō te tuhituhi. Ko te hui nui rawa atu i te tau ko ngā tohu a Montana mō ngā pukapuka o Aotearoa (Montana New Zealand Book Awards).

Ngā kōrerorero mō te pānui

He nui ngā rōpū pānui pukapuka i Aotearoa. I te nuinga o te wā, e 7 ki te e 12 tāngata kei ia rōpū. Ka hui rātou ia marama ki te inu tahi, ki te kai tahi, ki te kōrerorero mō tētahi pukapuka kātahi anō ka puta. I te tau 1973 ka whakatūria te kaupapa whitiwhiti kōrero (discussion scheme) e ngā rāngai mātauranga o te Huinga Kaimahi (Federation of Workers Educational Associations). Neke atu i te e 640 ngā rōpū puta i te motu kei te hono atu, me te aha, e 56% o ana mema nō waho kē i ngā tāone nui.

Te hunga pānui

Ka ngākau nui te iwi o Aotearoa ki te pānui tuhituhi. E ai ki tētahi rangahau o te tau 2002, e 44% o te hunga pakeke i hoko pukapuka i roto i te whā wiki kua taha, e 39% o rātou kua tae ki tētahi whare pukapuka. Kei reira anō ngā rōpū tautoko pērā i te Kaunihera Pukapuka o Aotearoa (New Zealand Book Council), ngā taiopenga pērā i te taiopenga pukapuka o Listener (Listener Women’s Book Festival), te wiki a New Zealand Post mō ngā kaipānui, kaituhituhi o New Zealand Post (New Zealand Post Readers and Writers Week).

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Nancy Swarbrick, 'Ngā auahatanga o Aotearoa - Te tuhi me te whakaputa pukapuka', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-auahatanga-o-aotearoa/page-6 (accessed 26 May 2019)

Story by Nancy Swarbrick, published 8 Feb 2005