Kōrero: Hītori

Whārangi 6. Te paunga o te rau tau 1900

Ngā whakaahua

Te whai manatanga o Nāhinara

Whai muri i te hingatanga o Reipa i te tau 1949, ko Nāhinara (National) te kāwanatanga mō te nuinga o te wā, tae rawa ki te tau 1984. I roto i aua tau, e rua anake ngā wā ka tū he kāwanatanga Reipa, arā, i te 1957-60 me te 1972-75. Nā tana mahi ki te āta pēhi i ngā auporo i ngā wāpu i te tau 1953 ka whakapiki e te pirimia e Te Hōrana (Sidney Holland) te mana o Nāhinara mā te karanga pōti ohorere.

Ngā here ki Ingarangi

I te wā e pūkahu ana te tupu o te ōhanga o Aotearoa / Niu Tīreni i te hokonga o ngā hua pāmu ki Ingarangi, i te horo tonu mai te tini o te manene ki ēnei motu, ko te nuinga nō Piritana Nui. Ka whakawhirinaki tonu a Aotearoa ki a Ingarangi, ka rite tonu āna tikanga ki ā Ingarangi. I te tau 1953 ka hī te ngākau o te motu i te kakenga o Edmund Hillary ki te tihi o te maunga Everest, hei tāna, he koha whakanui i te koroneihana o Kuini Irihāpeti II.

Ngā haerenga mai o te kāhui roera

Ko te tuatahi o te kāhui ariki o Ingarangi kia tae mai ki Aotearoa, ko Alfred, te tama tuarua a Kuini Wikitōria. I konei ia mō ngā tau 1869-71. I te tau 1920 ka peka mai te Pirinihi o Wērā (mō tētahi wā poto koia a Kīngi Erueti VIII), ā, i te tau 1927 ka tae mai te Tiuka o Ioka (Duke and Duchess of York) me tōna hoa rangatira. Heoi, nō te tau 1953 rawa tau mai ai tētahi ūpoko ariki o Ingarangi. Riro katoa te iwi whānui te whakamihi ki a Kuini Irihāpeti II, kātahi anō rā a ia ka eke hei kuini. Ka whakapaipaitia ngā tāone, ka puta te tini mano kia mātaki i te kuini me tōna hoa rangatira. Tekau tau ka taha, ka haere mai anō te kuini ki konei. Heoi, kāore i pērā te kaha o te tangata ka puta kia kite i a ia i tēnei haerenga me ngā haerenga ka whai.

I te tau 1973 ka kuhu a Ingarangi ki te European Economic Community (EEC). I taua wā, kua oti kē i a Aotearoa te whakawhānui i āna pūnaha tauhokohoko ki tāwāhi, engari he mea nui tonu te ngaronga o ngā mākete o Ingarangi mō ngā hua ahuwhenua. I te tau 1973, ka piki te utu o te penehīni puta i te ao. I te tau 1975 ka hinga te kāwanatanga Reipa. Ko Norman Kirk te pirimia o te kāwanatanga Reipa, tatū rawa ki tōna matenga. I te tau 1978 ka piki anō ngā utu mō te penehīni i te ao. Whāia, ka ngana te kāwanatanga Nāhinara o Robert Muldoon kia ārai i a Aotearoa i ngā whakawhiunga o te wā, mā ngā kaupapa ‘hanga whakaaro nui’ (‘think big’), arā, mā ngā tūmahi nunui pērā i te māturu hinu (oil refinery) ki Marsden Point, tāpae ki ngā pūtea tāpiri ki te taha ahuwhenua (farm subsidies). I te takahanga o ngā utu hinu o te ao i te tekau tau atu i 1980, ka paheke te ōhanga, ka ngoikore ngā tūmahi nui a Muldoon. Ka heke te uara o te tāra, ka piki te tokomaha noho mahi kore.

Te ‘pāhorotanga’ i 1984

I te tau 1984 ka tohungia te kāwanatanga Reipa tuawhā. Ko Roger Douglas te minita o te tahua i taua wā, he tangata pūmau ki te whakaaro kia wātea ngā mahi ōhanga i ngā rāwekeweke a te kāwanatanga. Ka tangohia e ia ngā pānga o te kāwanatanga ki runga i te ōhanga o te motu, ka hokona ētahi o ana whakahaere. I tua atu i tēnei, ka puta ana tuma ki te toko i te ora kāwanatanga. Ka tirohia e te rahi ēnei mahi āna, pēnei i te takahi i te tikanga e mea ana, kāore tētahi tangata e nui ake i tētahi atu.

I roto i ngā nekeneke o te ao, kāore te kāwanatanga Reipa i whakaae ki ngā kaupapa pana karihi. Nā tēnei ka raruraru ngā whakawhitiwhitinga me te Hononga o Amerika.

Nāhinara me Reipa

He ōrite ngā kaupapa i whāia e te kāwanatanga Nāhinara o ngā tau 1990–99 ki ērā o Reipa; ka whakamanahia te Ture Mahi Kirimana (Employment Contract Act) e tuwhera ai te mākete mahi. Nā tēnei ka heke te kaha o ngā uniana. Kātahi ka tahuri te kāwanatanga ki te wetewete i ngā kaupapa toko i te ora kāwanatanga, pēnei i ngā penihana.

I te tau 1996 ka whakakuhuna te kaupapa whirirua hei tikanga pōti whānui, e whai wāhi ai ngā rōpū tōrangapū ririki ki roto Paremata. Ahakoa tēnei, ka noho tonu ko Nāhinara rāua ko Reipa ngā rōpū tōrangapū nui.

Te Māori i te rau tau 1900

Tae rawa ki te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao, e noho tonu ana te mātotoru o te iwi Māori kei te tuawhenua. I te paunga o te rau tau 1800 me te tīmatanga o te rau tau 1900, e tū kaha ana te rōpū o te Kotahitanga, he whakaaturanga o te manawa kaha o te iwi Māori. He pērā anō mō ngā kaupapa ahuwhenua a Āpirana Ngata me te hiki ake a Te Puea Hērangi i te Kīngitanga. I ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau atu i 1920, ka waihangahia e Wiremu Tahupōtiki Rātana te Hāhi Rātana.

I te mutunga o te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao ka horo te nuku o te iwi Māori ki ngā tāone. Nāwai ā, ka tipu te riri o te Māori mō tōna kore whai wāhi ki ngā hua o te ōhanga, tāpae atu ki te hokonga tonutanga o ōna whenua. Waihoki, ka tīmata te aro whānui o ngā tāngata ki te āhua o te noho o ngā iwi ki tēnei motu me te Tiriti o Waitangi.

Ngā mahi tōrangapū me ngā hākinakina

Kua roa kē e tū ana ngā hākinakina i waenganui i a Aotearoa me taua whenua whakatāuke tangata, a Te Tonga o Awherika. I te taunga mai o te tīma whutupaoro o Te Tonga o Awherika i te tau 1981, ka tōtara wāhi rua te motu. Nō tō rātou hokinga, ka tahuri te motu ki te āta whakaaro mō te āhua o te noho a ngā iwi ki tēnei motu me te wāhi ki te Tiriti o Waitangi.

Ka kakama te iwi Māori

Ka kaha ake te iwi Māori. Nā te whakapae kua whatia ngā ture o te Tiriti o Waitangi, ka hiahia ētahi kia hoki mai te tino rangatiratanga a te Māori ki te Māori. I te tau 1975 ka waihangahia te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi hei whiriwhiri kerēme, hei whakaea hoki i ngā whakamau. I te tau 1985 ka whakamanahia te taraipiunara kia tātari i ngā whatinga o te tiriti atu i te tau 1840, kāpā atu i te tau 1975 noa iho.

Tikanga-rua, takenga maha (Bicultural and multicultural)

Nō ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau atu i 1980 ka whanake anō te reo Māori. Ka hōrapa te whakaaro, he whenua tikanga-rua a Aotearoa. I taua wā anō, tini te manene e tau mai ana. Kātahi anō ka toko te kōrero he whenua tikanga-rua a Aotearoa, ka huri a Aotearoa hei whenua takenga maha – kitea tuatahitia ai tēnei i te panoni o te taupori, nō muri ka kitea i te āhua tonu o ngā whakahaerenga ā-motu. He tohu ngā manene o ngā moutere o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa me Āhia ki te mea kua kore a Aotearoa e whakawhirinaki atu ki Ingarangi pērā i ngā tau ki mua.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

John Wilson, 'Hītori - Te paunga o te rau tau 1900', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/hitori/page-6 (accessed 19 July 2019)

Story by John Wilson, published 8 Feb 2005