Kōrero: Hītori

Whārangi 5. Mai te Rīpera ki te Reipa

Ngā whakaahua

Te kāwanatanga Rīpera

I te pōti whānui o te tau 1890 ka eke te rōpū Rīpera hei kāwanatanga. Koianei te rōpū tōrangapū tuatahi me kī, o te ‘ao hōu’ kia eke ki ngā taumata kāwanatanga. Atu i te tau 1893 ki te tau 1906, ko Te Hētana (Richard Seddon) te pirimia o te kāwanatanga Rīpera. Nā ngā Rīpera i whakaū te tikanga ‘pāmu mō te whānau’, mā te wāwāhi i ngā teihana nui kia takoto te maha o ngā pāmu pakupaku; te hoko i ngā whenua Māori ki Te Ika-a-Māui, te whakarato āwhina pūtea ki ngā tāngata whai. Nā te koronga o ngā mākete whai rawa i ngā hua ahuwhenua o Aotearoa, ka whai hua ngā kaupapa nei. Nā te minita mō ngā whenua nā John McKenzie i hāpai te kaupapa o ngā ‘pāmu mō te whānau’. Ka ahu whakamua ngā mahi ahuwhenua i Te Ika-a-Māui. Kia eke ki te tau 1901, neke atu i te haurua o te taupori Pākehā o Aotearoa i te noho ki Te Ika-a-Māui. Koinei te wā tuatahi i pēnei te kaha o te taupori Pākehā o te raki mai anō i te tekau tau 1850.

Ka whakakuhu te kāwanatanga i a ia

Kātahi ka whakakuhuna haeretia e te kāwanatanga Rīpera tōna mana ki te ōhanga me ngā whakahaere o te hapori. Koianei te tīmatanga o te toko i te ora kāwanatanga, inarā whakaratoa ai te penihana kaumātua me ngā kāinga mō ngā kaimahi. I te tau 1893, whai muri i ngā mautohe a te hunga wāhine pērā i a Kate Sheppard, ka whakawhiwhia te wahine ki te pōti.

Kei runga i te moni

Atu i te tau 1887, ko Kate Sheppard te kaiārahi i ngā mautohe kia whakawhiwhia te wahine ki te pōti. Nō te tau 1893 ka tutuki tēnei wawata. Ka hipa ngā tau, nāwai ā, ka tohua ko tōna whakaahua ki runga i te nōti $10 hōu o Aotearoa. Ko ōna hoa i tāngia ki te nōti, ko Tā Edmund Hillary (ki runga i te nōti $5), te whakaihuwaka nāna te tihi o Everest i kake tuatahi i te tau 1953; ko te tipua o te ao Māori a Tā Āpirana Ngata (kei runga i te nōti $50); ko Ernest Rutherford (ki runga i te nōti $100), te kaimātai pūtaiao nāna i wāhi te ngota. I ngā wā o mua, tāngia ai te āhua o Kuini Irihāpeti i ngā nōti katoa; i ēnei wā, kei runga tōna āhua i te nōti $20 anake.

Ka pūmau ki Ingarangi

Nā ngā here ōhanga i waenganui i a Niu Tīreni me Ingarangi, ka kaha ake te whakawhirinaki atu o Niu Tīreni ki te emepaea. I te tau 1899, i āta kitea tēnei pūmautanga i te tuku a Niu Tīreni i ana hōia kia tū ki te taha o Ingarangi i te pakanga ki a Āwherika ki te Tonga. Ka puea ake te wairua whakatoatoa mō tēnei whenua. Koianei te take ka whakahē a Niu Tīreni kia kotahi atu ki te Whakaminenga o Ahitereiria i te tau 1901.

Te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao

I te tau 1912 ka turakina te kāwanatanga Rīpera, ka matika mai ko te rōpū Riwhōma (Reform Party) i raro i a Te Maahi (William Massey). Ko te kī taurangi a tēnei kāwanatanga ki ngā kairīhi whenua kāwanatanga, ka taea e rātou te pupuri tūturu i aua whenua. Nō te pakarutanga o te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao, ka rūpeke atu a Niu Tīreni ki te taha o Ingarangi whawhai ai. Tini ngā hōia o Niu Tīreni i haere ki ngā pae o te riri ki tāwāhi, tini rātou i hinga. Ko te tau 1915 te pakaritanga o te tuakiri o Aotearoa / Niu Tīreni, i te taunga o ana hōia ki te pakanga i Karipori kei te Whenua Korukoru (Turkey). Nō konei rongohia tuatahitia ai a ANZAC – te wehi o ngā hōia o Aotearoa / Niu Tīreni, me ngā hononga ki a Ahitereiria. I te pakanga nui o te ao, i hinga anō ngā hōia o Aotearoa / Niu Tīreni ki te ahi pārāweranui e mura rā ki Ūropi.

Ka paheke te ōhanga o te ao

Whai hua ana a Aotearoa / Niu Tīreni i te pikinga o te ōhanga o te motu i te tekau tau atu i 1920. Heoi, ka ūhia te ao ki te kapua pōuri i te hōrapa o te ‘Paheketanga Nui’ i te tekau tau atu i 1930. Pākia kinotia a Aotearoa / Niu Tīreni. Ka hinga ngā utu mō ana hokonga ki tāwāhi. Ka pēhia te tini o ngā kai pāmu mō ā rātou mōkete, ka piki rawa atu te tokomaha i te kore mahi. Nāwai, ka tīmata te rīriri me te aha, ka pakaru ngā pakanga ki ngā tāone. Ahakoa tana ngana, kāore i tareka e te kāwanatanga whakakotahi a Te Kōti (Coates) te hiki i te motu ki te whaiao, ki te ao mārama.

Ka matika a Reipa

Mārama te kite i te kaha o te tōpūtanga kaimahi i ngā auporo ā ngā kaumoana (1890) me ērā i pupū ake i ngā tau 1912 - 1913 ki Waihī, ki ngā kaimahi hoki i ngā wāpu. Nā ngā pōreareatanga ki te hunga ahumahi, i tahuri rātou ki te ao tōrangapū. I te tau 1916 ka hua mai te rōpū Reipa. I te tekau tau atu i 1920 ka piki haere te mana o te rōpū nei. Nō te tau 1935 ka riro i a Reipa te mana kāwanatanga i raro i a Te Hāwiti (M. J. Savage). Kua kore kē e aro te iwi whānui ki te kāwanatanga whakakotahi me āna whakahaere i te wā o te Paheketanga Nui. I te matenga o Te Hāwiti i te tau 1940, ka whakakīia tōna tūranga hei pirimia e Pita Pereiha (Peter Fraser).

Te kāwanatanga o Reipa

I te wā ka kuhu a Reipa hei kāwanatanga, kua piki haere te ōhanga o te motu. Kāore te kāwanatanga nei i whai ngā tikanga tūturu o te taha maui o te ao tōrangapū, ka titiro tonu ia ki tōna ao me ōna nekeneke. I te tau 1936 ka tangohia e te kāwanatanga ki a ia te mana whakahaere o te Reserve Bank, ka piki ngā mahi tūmatanui (public works), ka tīmataria te hanganga o ngā whare kāwanatanga (state housing). Nā Te Ture Penihana (Social Security Act) 1938, ka whānui atu te hōrapa o te toko i te ora kāwanatanga.

Te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao

I te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao, ka tū anō ngā hōia o Aotearoa / Niu Tīreni ki te taha o ērā o Ingarangi. Nō te horonga o Hingapoa, ka tīmata te māharahara a Aotearoa / Niu Tīreni mō te kaha o Ingarangi ki te tiaki i a Aotearoa / Niu Tīreni. I te pakanga ki Te Moana Nui (Pacific Ocean), nā te Hononga o Amerika (United States of America) kē a Aotearoa / Niu Tīreni i whakamarumaru i ngā wetiweti a Hapanihi. I ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau atu i 1950, ka whawhai ngā hōia o Aotearoa / Niu Tīreni ki Kōrea. He pērā anō i te tekau tau atu i 1960; nā te hiahia o te kāwanatanga Nāhinara kia whakapatipati i tōna kaitiaki i a te Hononga o Amerika, ka whai atu a Aotearoa / Niu Tīreni ki ngā riri ki Whitināmu (Vietnam). He nui ngā tāngata o te motu i mautohe mō tēnei pakanga.

Te paheketanga o Reipa

Ka noho tonu a Reipa hei kāwanatanga, ā, mutu rawa te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao. I te tau 1945, ka whai wāhi te pirimia a Pita Pereiha ki ngā hui whakatū i te Kotahitanga o Ngā Whenua o te Ao (United Nations). Heoi, ka ngoikore haere a Reipa, ka memeha ngā tautoko o te tekau tau ki mua.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

John Wilson, 'Hītori - Mai te Rīpera ki te Reipa', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/hitori/page-5 (accessed 21 October 2019)

Story by John Wilson, published 8 Feb 2005